Origin of Li and Yue - Zhou Dynasty (1046 -256 BCE)


This video describes the Zhou Dynasty of Chinese history.

What historical dynasty emerged from the time of troubles?

Answer: Time of Troubles, Russian Smutnoye Vremya, period of political crisis in Russia that followed the demise of the Rurik dynasty (1598) and ended with the establishment of the Romanov dynasty (1613).

The Time of Troubles was an era of Russian history dominated by a dynastic crisis and exacerbated by ongoing wars with Poland and Sweden, as well as a devastating famine. It began with the death of the childless last Russian Tsar of the Rurik Dynasty, Feodor Ivanovich, in 1598 and continued until the establishment of the Romanov Dynasty in 1613.

What historical dynasty emerged from the time of troubles?

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The regime that existed between 1368 and 1635 is known by various names, including the Northern Yuan (dynasty). [7] The dynastic name of "Great Yuan" (Chinese: 大元 pinyin: Dà Yuán ) was officially used between 1368 and 1388, as was the preceding Yuan dynasty. Following the death of Uskhal Khan Tögüs Temür, the "Great Yuan" dynastic name along with other Chinese-style imperial titles were abandoned by his successor Jorightu Khan Yesüder, hence the name "Northern Yuan" is sometimes limited in its usage to referencing only the period between 1368 and 1388. [8] The term "Northern Yuan" is derived from the corresponding term "北元" (Běi Yuán) in Chinese, in which the prefix "Northern" is used to distinguish between the Yuan dynasty established in 1271 and the regime that existed after 1368. The "Great Yuan" dynastic title was briefly reintroduced during the reign of Dayan Khan whose regnal name "Dayan" came from the Chinese term "大元" (Dà Yuán lit. "Great Yuan"). [9] Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that Taisun Khan and Esen Taishi had also used the "Great Yuan" dynastic name and Chinese imperial titles during their rule. [9]

In English, the term "Northern Yuan (dynasty)" is generally used to cover the entire period from 1368 to 1635 for historiographical purpose. Apart from "Great Yuan" (before 1388 and during the rule of Dayan Khan), the Mongols called their nation "Ikh Mongol Uls", meaning the "Great Mongol State". It is also referred to as "Post-Imperial Mongolia", the "Mongol(ian) Khaganate" or the "Mongol(ian) Khanate" [10] in some modern sources, [11] although most of these English terms can also refer to the Mongol Empire or the Yuan dynasty in the 13th and the 14th centuries.

In Mongolian chronicles, this period is also known as "The Forty and the Four", meaning forty tumen Eastern Mongols (Eastern Mongolia) and four tumen Western Mongols. [note 1] Furthermore, Mongolian historiography also uses the term "Period of political disunion", "Period of small khagans", "Mongolia's period of political disruption" and "Mongolia's 14th–17th century", etc. [12] [13]

Origin Edit

The Northern Yuan dynasty was the remnant of the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368) founded by Kublai Khan. After eliminating the Song dynasty in 1279, the Yuan dynasty ruled all of China proper for about a century. Even prior to the Yuan dynasty, the Mongols had ruled Northern China for more than 40 years, since the time they conquered the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty in 1234.

Yuan rule in China began to collapse in 1344 when the Yellow River flooded and changed course, causing widespread droughts, flooding, and making the Grand Canal impassable. [14] In 1351, the Red Turban Rebellion erupted in the Huai River valley, which saw the rise of Zhu Yuanzhang, a Han peasant, who eventually established the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) in South China. In 1368, a Ming army advanced on the Yuan capital Khanbaliq or Dadu (present-day Beijing). [15]

Retreat to Mongolian Steppe (1368–1388) Edit

Toghon Temür (r. 1333–1370), the last ruler of the Yuan, fled north to Shangdu (located in present-day Inner Mongolia) from Dadu upon the approach of Ming forces. He tried to regain Dadu but failed and died in Yingchang (located in present-day Inner Mongolia) two years later (1370). Yingchang was seized by the Ming shortly after his death. [15]

The Mongols retreated to Karakorum after the fall of Yingchang in 1370, where they carried on calling themselves the Great Yuan, known retroactively as the Northern Yuan. The Ming army pursued the Yuan remnants into Mongolia in 1372, but were defeated by Biligtü Khan Ayushiridara (r. 1370–1378) and his general Köke Temür (d. 1375). In 1375, Naghachu, a Mongol official of Biligtu Khan in Liaoyang province invaded Liaodong with aims of restoring Mongol power in China. Although he continued to hold southern Manchuria, Naghachu eventually surrendered to the Ming dynasty in 1387–88. [16] The Yuan loyalists under the Kublaid prince Basalawarmi (the Prince of Liang) in Yunnan and Guizhou were also defeated and killed by the Ming earlier in 1381–82. [17]

In 1380, the Ming invaded Northern Yuan and sacked Karakorum, although they were eventually forced to withdraw. Around 70,000 Mongol captives were taken. In 1387, the Ming defeated the Uriankhai Mongols, and in the following year they achieved decisive victory around the Buir Lake against Uskhal Khan Tögüs Temür. [18] The defeat of Uskhal Khan effectively shattered Yuan power in the steppes and allowed the Western Oirat Mongols to rise and become kingmaker of the Northern Yuan realm. [19]

The Genghisid rulers of the Northern Yuan also buttressed their claim on China, [20] [21] and held tenaciously to the title of Emperor (or Great Khan) of the Great Yuan (Dai Yuwan Khaan, or 大元可汗) [22] to resist the Ming who had by this time become the real ruler of China. According to the traditional Chinese political orthodoxy, there could be only one legitimate dynasty whose rulers were blessed by Heaven to rule as Emperor of China (see Mandate of Heaven), so the Ming also denied the Yuan remnants' legitimacy as emperors of China, although the Ming did consider the previous Yuan which it had succeeded to be a legitimate dynasty.

Oirat domination (1388–1478) Edit

In 1388, the Northern Yuan throne was taken over by Jorightu Khan Yesüder, a descendant of Arik Böke (Tolui's son), with the support of the Oirats. In the following year, one of Uskhal Khan's subjects, Gunashiri, a descendant of Chagatai Khan, founded his own small state called Kara Del in Hami. [23]

The following century saw a succession of Genghisid rulers, many of whom were mere figureheads put on the throne by those warlords who happened to be the most powerful. From the end of the 14th century there appear designations such as "period of small kings" (Бага хаадын үе). [24] On one side stood the Western Mongols and on the other the Eastern Mongols. While the Oirats drew their khans from the descendants of Ariq Böke and other princes, Arugtai of the Asud supported the old Yuan khans of Kublaid descent. The House of Ogedei also briefly attempted to reunite the Mongols under their rule.

The Mongols eventually split into three main groups: the Oirats in the west, the Uriankhai in northeast, and the Khorchin between the two. The Uriankhai surrendered to the Ming dynasty in the 1390s. The Ming divided them into the Three Guards: Doyin, Tai'nin and Fuyu. [25]

Yuan relations with the Ming dynasty consisted of sporadic bursts of conflict intermingled with periods of peaceful relations and border trade. In 1402, Örüg Temür Khan (Guilichi) abolished the dynastic name Great Yuan [26] he was however defeated by Öljei Temür Khan (Bunyashiri, r. 1403–1412), the protégé of Tamerlane (d. 1405), in 1403. Most of the Mongol noblemen under Arugtai chingsang sided with Öljei Temur. The Yongle Emperor (r. 1402–1424) issued Öljei Temür an ultimatum demanding his acceptance of the Ming dynasty as a suzerain state. Öljei Temur refused, resulting in the Ming dynasty conducting several campaigns against the Mongols. In 1409, a Ming army of 100,000 entered Mongolia but suffered a defeat against Öljei Temur and Arugtai at the Battle of Kherlen. In the following year, the Yongle Emperor personally led an expedition into Mongolia and defeated the Mongols. After the death of Öljei Temur, the Oirats under their leader Bahamu (Mahmud) (d. 1417) enthroned an Ariq Bökid Delbeg Khan in 1412. Originally the Ming had supported the Oirats in their power struggle with the eastern Mongols, but as the Oirats gained supremacy over them, the Ming withdrew their support. After 1417 Arugtai became dominant again, and Yongle campaigned against him in 1422 and 1423. Bahamu's successor Toghan pushed Arugtai east of the Greater Khingan range in 1433. The Oirats killed him in the west of Baotou the next year. Arugtai's ally Adai Khan (r. 1425–1438) made a last stand in Ejene before he was murdered too. [27]

Toghan died in the very year of his victory over Adai. His son Esen Taishi (r. 1438–1454) brought the Oirats to the height of their power. Under his puppet khans, he drove back Moghulistan and crushed the Uriankhai Three Guards, Kara Del and the Jurchens. In 1449 he defeated a 500,000 strong Ming army with just 20,000 cavalry and captured the Zhengtong Emperor in what came to be known as the Tumu Crisis. [28] However, after this astounding victory, Esen failed to take the Ming capital of Beijing. In the following year a peace was concluded between the two sides and the captive emperor was allowed to return home. After executing the rebellious Tayisung Khan (r. 1433–1453) and his brother Agbarjin in 1453, Esen took the title of not just khan, but also Yuan Emperor. [29] This called widespread dissent among the Genghisids, and in 1455, a series of revolts resulted in Esen's death. His death started the decline of the Oirats, who would not recover until their rise as the Dzungar Khanate in the 17th century. [30]

From Esen's death to 1481 different warlords of the Kharchin, the Belguteids and Ordos Mongols fought over succession and had their Genghisid khans enthroned. The Mongolian chroniclers call some of them the Uyghurs and they might have had some ties with the Hami oasis. [31] During his reign, Manduulun Khan (1475–1478) effectively won over most of the Mongol warlords before he died in 1478.

Restoration (1479–1600) Edit

Second reunification Edit

Manduulun's young khatun Mandukhai proclaimed a seven-year-old boy named Batumongke of Genghisid descent as khan. Mandukhai made persistent efforts to bring the various Mongol tribes under control. The new khan took the title Dayan meaning the "Great Yuan". [32] Mandukhai and Dayan Khan defeated the Oirats and the taishis who ruled the Yellow River Mongols. However, one of them killed Dayan Khan's son and revolted when Dayan Khan appointed his son, Ulusbold, as jinong (crown prince) over them. Dayan Khan finally defeated the southwestern Mongols in 1510 with the assistance of his allies, Unebolad wang and the Four Oirats. [33] Making another of his sons jinong, he abolished old-Yuan court titles of taishi, chingsang, pingchan and chiyuan.

From 1495 onward, Dayan exerted pressure on the Ming dynasty, which closed border-trade and killed his envoys. Dayan invaded Ming territory and subjugated the Uriankhai Three Guards, who had previously submitted to the Ming. As a result, the Tümed Mongols ruled in the Ordos region and they gradually extended their domain into northeastern Qinghai. [34] In 1517, Dayan even threatened Beijing itself. Mongol armies raided the Ming dynasty not only in the north but also in the hitherto quiet west. The Ming dynasty lost Kara Del as a protectorate to the Turpan Khanate at the same time. Dayan kept defeating the Ming in battle right up until his death in 1543. [35] At the apogee of Dayan's reign, the Northern Yuan stretched from the Siberian tundra and Lake Baikal in the north, across the Gobi, to the edge of the Yellow River and south of it into the Ordos. The lands extended from the forests of Manchuria in the East past the Altai Mountains and out onto the steppes of Central Asia. [36]

Dayan Khan's reorganization of the Mongols into six Eastern Mongol tümens (literally "ten thousand") and four Oirats tümens had far reaching effects on the development of Mongol society.

  • Left Wing:
      tumen: Northern 7 otog: Jalaid, Besud, Eljigin, Gorlos, Khökhüid (Khukhuid), Khataghin, and later added Uriankhai. Southern 5 otog: Baarin, Jaruud, Bayagud, Ujeed (Uchirad) and Hongirad tumen: Abaga, Abaganar, Aokhan, Daurs, Durved, Hishigten, Muumyangan, Naiman, Onnigud, Huuchid, Sunud, Uzemchin, and Urad[37] tumen. This tumen was later dissolved.
    • tumen tümen
    • Yünsheebüü (Yöngshiyebü) tümen (including Asud and Kharchin)
      , Olots, Durvud, Khoid, Baatud, Torghut, Khoshut, Ur (Ör) Mongol, Barga Mongols and Buryats. The Barga and Buryats later became subject of Khalkha.

    The six Eastern Mongol tümens were granted to his 11 sons while the four Oirat tümens were ruled by taishi nobles. His youngest son Gersenji Khongtaiji of the Jalayir became the ruler of the Khalkha Mongols, the largest of the six tümens. The tümens functioned both as military units and as tribal administrative bodies who hoped to receive taijis, descended from Dayan Khan. Northern Khalkha people and Uriyankhan were attached to the South Khalkha of eastern Inner Mongolia and Doyin Uriyangkhan of the Three Guards, respectively. After the rebellion of the northern Uriankhai people, they were conquered in 1538 and mostly annexed by the northern Khalkha. However, his decision to divide the six tumens to his sons, or taijis, and local tabunangs-sons in law of the taijis created a decentralized system of Borjigin rule that secured domestic peace and outward expansion for a century. Despite this decentralization there was a remarkable concord within the new Mongol order created by Dayan Khan.

    Last reunification Edit

    After Dayan Khan's death, the Northern Yuan began falling apart again under the two succeeding khans. By 1540 new regional circles of taijis and local tabunangs (imperial sons-in-law) of the taijis emerged in all the former Dayan Khan's domains. The khagan and the jinong had titular authority over the three right wing tumens. Darayisung Gödeng Khan (r. 1547–1557) had to grant titles of khans to his cousins Altan, ruling the Tumed, and Bayaskhul, ruling the Kharchin. [38]

    Under Tümen Jasagtu Khan (r. 1558–92), the realm was unified again with the aid of Altan Khan, Abtai Sain Khan, and Khutughtai Sechen Khongtaiji of Ordos. Jasagtu defeated the Uriankhai and Daghur Mongols and subjugated the Jurchens to the east. Abtai and Sechen brought many of the Oirat tribes under their domination. Altan conquered large parts of Qinghai and left one of his sons in charge there. Jasagtu also tried to unify the Mongols under a new code of law, written in the old Mongol script derived from the Uyghur script. [39] A series of smallpox epidemics and lack of trade forced the Mongols to repeatedly plunder the districts of China. In 1571 the Ming opened trade with the three Right Wing Tumens. [40]

    By the end of the 16th century, the Uriankhai Three Guards had lost their existence as a distinct group. Their Fuyu was absorbed by the Khorchin after they had moved to the Nonni River. Two other, Doyin and Tai'nin, were absorbed by the Five Khalkhas. [41]

    Conversion to Buddhism Edit

    Although Yuan emperors had previously adopted Buddhism, most Mongols ignored it and remained shamanist in their belief. From 1575, a large-scale conversion to Tibetan Buddhism in the Right Wing Tumens occurred. Jasagtu appointed a Tibetan Buddhist chaplain of the Karmapa order and agreed that Buddhism would henceforth become the state religion of Mongolia. In 1577, Altan and Sechen received the 3rd Dalai Lama, which started the conversion of Tumed and Ordos Mongols to Buddhism. Soon after the Oirats also adopted Buddhism. Numerous Tibetan lamas entered Mongolia to proselytize. [42]

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