Information

Augustus Timeline


  • 23 Sep 63 BCE

    Octavian born Gaius Octavius Thurinus at Rome.

  • Mar 44 BCE

    Octavian / Augustus adopted posthumously by Julius Caesar.

  • 43 BCE - 36 BCE

    Second Triumvirate: Antony, Octavian, and Lepidus (official approval by the Roman Senate). Mass proscriptions including Cicero.

  • 42 BCE

    Octavian and Antony defeat Republicans under Brutus and Cassius at the Battle of Philippi (Greece).

  • 38 BCE

    Octavian amasses a naval fleet to defeat Sextus Pompey.

  • 36 BCE

    Octavian strips Lepidus of all power but Pontifex Maximus (supreme priest). Lepidus dies of old age in 12 BC.

  • 31 BCE

    Octavian uses Corcyra as a Roman naval base.

  • 2 Sep 31 BCE

  • 29 BCE

    Octavian celebrates a triple triumph in Rome.

  • 27 BCE

    Octavian is given extraordinary powers and the name Augustus by the Roman Senate.

  • 27 BCE - 14 CE

    Reign of Augustus Caesar. Athens and the Agora restored.

  • 27 BCE

    Augustus creates the Praetorian Guard.

  • c. 23 BCE

    Augustus takes over most of the powers of the tribuni plebis.

  • 19 BCE

    Augustus is given supreme powers by the Roman Senate.

  • 19 BCE

    Arch of Augustus built in Rome to commemorate victory over the Parthians.

  • c. 10 BCE

    Statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus sculpted.

  • c. 10 BCE

  • 9 BCE

    A massive altar the Ara Pacis is completed by Augustus in Rome.

  • c. 2 BCE

    Augustus is declared "Father of the Country".

  • 2 BCE

    Augusutus inaugurates the Temple of Mars Ultor in Rome to commemorate his victory at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BCE.

  • 2 BCE

    Augustus appoints two Prefects (praefectus praetorio) to command the Praetorian Guard.

  • 6 CE

    Augustus creates the aerarium militare, a treasury drawn from taxes in order to fund a professional Roman army.

  • 6 CE

    Augustus creates Rome's permanent firefighting force, the Vigiles.

  • c. 13 CE

    Augustus creates the cohortes urbanae in Rome to help maintain public order.

  • 19 Aug 14 CE

    Augustus dies at Nola of natural causes.


List of wealthiest historical figures

The list of the wealthiest historical figures gathers published estimates of the (inflation-adjusted) net-worth and fortunes of the wealthiest historical figures. Due to problems arising from different definitions of wealth, ways of measuring it, various economic models throughout history, as well as multiple other reasons, this article discusses the wealthiest people in the following separate historical time periods: Antiquity, Middle Ages and modern period. Accordingly—because of the previously mentioned difficulties—it is not possible to determine the single richest person in all of history.

For the modern period, wealth can be measured more or less objectively via inflation adjustment, e.g. comparing the nominal GDP of the United States of the respective periods, and then converting it into contemporary United States dollars. For the medieval and ancient history, comparison of wealth becomes more problematic, on one hand due to the inaccuracy or unreliability of records, on the other due to the difficulty of comparing a pre-industrial economy to a modern one, and especially in the presence of absolute monarchy, where an entire kingdom or empire is considered the ruler's personal property. The latter factor is also an issue in the early modern to modern period, e.g. various economists nominate Joseph Stalin among The 10 Richest People of All Time for his "complete control of a nation with 9.6% of global GDP". [2]

Excluding monarchs and autocrats, the wealthiest private individuals in the history of capitalism are variously identified as Jakob Fugger (died 1525) who was of the early modern Fugger family of merchants and bankers, [3] prominent figures of India's Delhi and Bengal Sultanate and Mughal Empire, and early 20th-century American entrepreneurs Andrew Carnegie (died 1919) [4] and John D. Rockefeller (died 1937). Frequently, one of these individuals is considered to be the richest person of all time.

While the Rothschild family rose to the status of the wealthiest family of bankers in the 19th century, their wealth was distributed among a number of family members, preventing them from appearing among the wealthiest individuals. The richest among the Rothschilds was the head of its English branch—Nathan Mayer Rothschild (d. 1836)—the richest person of his time. [5] Bernstein and Swan in All the Money in the World (2008) mention the top four richest Americans ever—all tycoons of the Gilded Age—respectively: John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, Cornelius Vanderbilt, William Henry Vanderbilt Henry Ford was ranked only 12th. [6]

According to Close (2016), the wealthiest woman in the history of capitalism, excluding monarchs, was L'Oréal heiress Liliane Bettencourt, whose net worth was $40.7 billion in 2015. [7] Including monarchs, he mentions Empress Wu for Antiquity, Razia Sultana and Isabella of Castile for Middle Ages, and Catherine the Great for modern history. [8]


Initially Octavian ruled by way of a series of consulships which gave him legal power over the armies. Later he relinquished the consulships but was designated as princep, (first citizen). He also had the Senate designate him as tribunica potestas, tribune for life. Around 15 BCE he created a committee of the Senate to draft governmental program and began the creation of a permanent civil service. He cloaked his reforms in terms of Roman traditions but the reality was that the traditional form of governance of Rome was for a municipality and were inadequate for governing a world empire.

Octavian gave special attention to reforming the finances of the empire. His father's family had been bankers. The tax system of Rome was largely a poll tax (head tax) and a land tax. There were custom duties on commerce but at a relatively low level. Other taxes were farmed out because Rome did not have the administrative organization for collecting such taxes. The Empire came to depend more and more on funds extracted from the provinces rather than the city of Rome. This had the effect of removing control of affairs from the Senate and keeping it in the hands of the executive heads of government.

Octavian expanded the minting of coins to facilitate commerce. The form of the coins was made to serve some propaganda purposes. For example, those showing an image of Octavian had him labeled as Son of God.


Octavian
Caesar Augustus


Caesar Augustus

Caesar Augustus was one of ancient Rome&rsquos most successful leaders who led the transformation of Rome from a republic to an empire. During his reign, Augustus restored peace and prosperity to the Roman state and changed nearly every aspect of Roman life.

Social Studies, World History

Caesar Augustus

This statue is thought to depict Caesar Augustus, the first emperor of the Roman Empire.

National Geographic Creative

Caesar Augustus was born Gaius Octavius in 63 B.C. His great-uncle was Julius Caesar, who he fought beside in 47 B.C. Augustus impressed his great uncle so much during battle that when Julius Caesar was assassinated in 43 B.C., he had appointed Augustus as heir to his political and personal fortune in his will. Augustus, at the age of 19, accepted the inheritance from Caesar&rsquos will and was quickly plunged into the complicated world of Roman politics. He quickly formed strategic alliances, defeated his political rivals, and won a bitterly fought civil war. In 31 B.C. at the Battle of Actium, Augustus won a decisive victory over his rival Mark Antony and his Egyptian fleet.

Returning to Rome, Augustus was acclaimed a hero. With skill, efficiency, and cleverness, he secured his position as the first Emperor of Rome. Augustus claimed he acted for the glory of the Roman Republic, not for personal power. He appealed to Roman citizens by claiming that he led a frugal and modest life.

Augustus reorganized Roman life throughout the empire. He passed laws to encourage marital stability and renew religious practices. He instituted a system of taxation and a census while also expanding the network of Roman roads. He founded a postal service and established a regular police force and fire brigade in Rome.

Augustus expanded the empire, annexing Egypt, part of Spain, areas of central Europe, and even lands in the Middle East, such as Judea in A.D. 6. These additions, along with the end of civil wars, fostered the growth of an enormous trading network.

Augustus died outside of Naples, Italy in A.D. 14. His body was returned to the capital. Businesses closed the day of his funeral out of deep respect for the emperor. He was a ruler of ability and vision and at his death, Augustus was proclaimed by the Senate to be a Roman god.

This statue is thought to depict Caesar Augustus, the first emperor of the Roman Empire.


Roman Emperors Augustus

Julius Caesar was one of the greatest rulers of ancient Rome. He was born around 100 B.C. and he was assassinated in 44 B.C. during the Ides of March. Caesar lived a busy life when he was the consul of Rome and through his efforts he had had helped to shape Rome into an empire. After Caesar had passed away he did not have a legitimate heir to take his place. He adopted his sister’s grandson named Gaius Octavius who rose to the position of consul after he had died.

Gaius Octavius was given the name Emperor Augustus and he was the first of the Julian Emperors. Julian Emperors are the historical name of five Roman rulers who were the direct descendants of Julius Caesar. They included Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius and Nero. They appear on the Biblical Timeline with world history between 44 BC and AD 68.

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When Caesar was alive he was a womanizer and he had many children. All of Caesar’s children were born through his many extramarital affairs and for this reason they were illegitimate. He had a daughter named Julia with his first wife Cornelia Cinnilla. Since she was a female she was not able to claim the throne. She had a grandchild that was born from his daughter Julia, but that child died shortly after being born.

Caesar had also married two other women named Pompeia and Calpurnia Pisonis, but they did not bear him any children. Caesar had an affair with the famous Cleopatra VII of Egypt and the child’s name was Caesarion (or little Caesar), but he would not allow this particular child to become a legitimate ruler of Rome. Octavius (later emperor Augustus) had Caesarion assassinated in his teenage years to keep him from trying to become the next ruler.

Julian Emperors
Emperor Augustus was the first ruler of the Julian Emperors and he governed Rome from 27 B.C. until his death in 14 A.D. Julius Caesar was his maternal great uncle and had named him his adopted son and heir. His reign contained the relative era of peace known as the Pax Romana. Both his adoptive surname, Caesar, and his title Augustus became the permanent titles of the rulers of the Roman Empire for fourteen centuries after his death.

Emperor Tiberius
Tiberius became emperor of Rome in 14 A.D. and he ruled the empire until the time of his death in 37 A.D. When Emperor Augustus had passed away he left a will with specific instructions about keeping the descendants of Julius Caesar on the throne as emperor. Many of the senators and other ruling governors agreed to this demand. Many of Caesar’s descendants died before Tiberius’ reign had ended. Shortly before it was over Caesar’s descendant Caligula was designated the next ruler.

Emperor Caligula
Emperor Caligula’s birth name was Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus. Caligula was a childhood nickname that was used by Germanicus once he became emperor. When he was chosen to become the ruler of Rome he was to share this power with his cousin Tiberus Gemellus. Caligula ended up assassinating him so he could become the sole ruler of Rome. Emperor Caligula and his family were assassinated in 41 B.C. He died after ruling the empire for only three years.

Emperor Claudius
Emperor Claudius became the next ruler and he was the uncle of Claudius. He was supported by the Praetorian Guard. He ended up marrying four women, but none of his children with these women succeeded him as emperor. During his marriage to Aggripina the Younger, he had adopted his nephew Nero so that he would become the next emperor.


Augustus Timeline Review

Students review Caesar Augustus' life and times by completing a timeline activity and answering 4 questions. There are 23 items for students to place on the timeline. Students must classify each item according to a system detailed in the instructions, they have one task to complete for 6 items of their choice, and another task to complete for 4 other items of their choice. All instructions are provided in the handout. There are arrows in the first two lines of the timeline showing students the direction to fill out the pieces in. This could work for a sub and the answers are included where appropriate.

Sample timeline items and questions include:

-- becomes part of Second Triumvirate

--loses his naval fleet in storms against Sextus Pompey

--orders death of Caesarion

--becomes Pontifex Maximus when Lepidus dies

--What do you consider Augustus' greatest success and why? Would historians agree with you, why or why not?

--If you could give one piece of advice to Augustus at any point during his life, what would it be and why? Do you think he would have heeded your advice, why or why not?

***a teacher's note is included in the file describing an alternate way students can complete this activity***


How did augustus die? - Augustus caesar life timeline - Augustus caesar biography

Augustus Caesar, born in Rome in the year 63 BC on September 23, is considered to be the first greatest Roman Emperor. He was the absolute monarch for over forty years, from 27 B.C. until 14 A.D. This reign was popularly called the Augustan Age. Though he was a rigid politician and soldier, he stopped civil wars and took Rome to new heights of peace, order, prosperity and royal magnitude. August, the 8th month of the Gregorian calendar, is also named after his name.

Though born as Gaius Octavius, his named was altered to Gaius Julius Caesar Octavius after getting adopted by Julius Caesar, who wanted heir. Caesar was August Caesar's uncle, his mother's brother. After Julius Caesar&rsquos assassination in March 44 BC, Augustus Caesar came back from Apollonia (now Albania) and formed an army in association with Julius Caesar&rsquos expert soldiers, Marcus Antonius and Marcus Lepidus. This coalition, referred to as the Second Triumvirate, began a war against Julius Caesar&rsquos murderers, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius who finally escaped to the east. The Caesarian forces chased them and defeated them at Philippi in Macedonia. More.

Augustus Caesar was the greatest Roman emperor. He was married to Scribonia at a young age of twenty-three in the year 40 BC. Their only daughter Julia was born in 39 BC. After sometime, Augustus divorced his wife to marry his beloved Livia. She was the wife of Tiberius Claudius Nero and had a son Tiberius.

Augustus compelled Nero to divorce Livia while she was carrying his second child. Augustus and Livia lived together happily for 52 years till Augustus&rsquo death, but they had no kids from this marriage. Thus Augustus had only three children, his daughter Julia, and 2 stepsons, Tiberius and Nero Drusus from Livia. More.

Augustus Caesar fell gravely ill in the year 23 B,C. He wanted to appoint a successor to his distinctive place in Rome and its government, an heir capable of dealing with all political matters and the public. Augustan historians have different arguments regarding the issue of his heir. According to some historians, he wanted to appoint his sister&rsquos son Marcellus, who was hurriedly married to Augustus&rsquo daughter, Julia, the Elder, while other historians disagree this because of Augustus&rsquo will showed that he had a soft corner for Marcus Agrippa. He was Augustus&rsquo second in command and perhaps the only one of his fellow men to lead the masses and hold the Roman Empire united.


Accounting in Ancient Civilizations: Mesopotamia, The Roman Empire

A means of keeping track of income and spending is essential to running a business, or even maintaining personal finances. A system of recording transactions is the basis of accounting. Accounting has been around since as far back as 3300 BC, with archaeologists having discovered accounting on clay tablets from Egypt and Mesopotamia. 

The techniques demonstrated on such ancient writing indicates accounting was used to keep track of herd and crop growth - what now are called commodities - to project surpluses or shortages, as the price of commodities ultimately are determined by supply and demand. 

Accounting evolved and traveled with traders along trade routes like the ancient Silk Road. By the time of the Roman Empire, 27 BC, Emperor Caesar Augustus began recording his own financial transactions and other "good deeds" as &aposRes Gestae Divi Augusti&apos or "The Deeds of the Divine Augustus." The tome listed distributions to people, land grants, construction projects, military pensions, religious offerings and entertainment spending. Roman historians also kept track of public revenues, treasury holdings, taxes, slaves, and freedmen.

Medieval Accounting:

Barter was the main system of trade during the Middle Ages. But Europe returned to a monetary economy in the 13thꃎntury, according to historians. At that time, merchants began needing bookkeeping to keep track of multiple transactions. That&aposs also when "double-entry" bookkeeping began, in which a debit and credit value is entered for each transaction by an accountant. Merchants used accounting as a system for ordering transactions, providing them with constant, "real-time" information about their businesses. 

1494: Luca Pacioli, the Father of Modern Accounting:

In 1494, Luca Pacioli published "Summa Arithmetica, Geometria, Proportioni et Proportionalita," describing the system of double-entry bookkeeping used by Venetian merchants. In his tome, Pacioli included a 27 treatise purely on the subject of bookkeeping, called "Particularis de Computis et Scripturis," or "Details of Calculation and Recording." The treatise described record keeping and double-entry accounting. His book actually became the teaching tool and reference text on bookkeeping and accounting for the next several hundred years. Historians also note his book was the first to publish symbols for plus and minus (addition and subtraction). As such, besides being the first known published work on the topic of double-entry bookkeeping, "Summa Arithmetica" also was the first known book printed in Italy to contain algebra. 

Accounting in the Industrial Revolution:

With the advent of industrial corporations, investors and debtors, though not part of a company&aposs management, nonetheless had a vested interest in the company&aposs results. This interest spurred a need for more advanced cost accounting, and helped turn accounting into a profession. 

The professionalization of accountants began in the 1800s, first in the United Kingdom and, later, the U.S. 

In the U.S., 31 accountants in 1887 created the American Association of Public Accountants. A decade later, the first standardized test for accountants was given, and the first Certified Public Accountants were licensed by the AAPA in 1896. 

Accounting in the 20th Century:

While the U.S. government tried to pass laws to create a national standard for accounting among publicly held companies before the crash of 1929, no commission existed to monitor or enforce the standards. 

On June 6, 1934, President Franklin D. Roosevelt created the Securities and Exchange Commission, which required all publicly-traded companies to file periodic reports that had been certified as accurate by professional accountants. Joseph P. Kennedy, father of the future president, was the first Chairman of the SEC. 

The AAPA was succeeded, in 1916, by the Institute of Public Accountants. In 1917, the professional group that certifies CPAs changed its name again, to the American Institute of Accountants, and changed its name once more to the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) in 1957. The different versions and growing membership of the AICPA, which had set and monitored the standards of accounting in the U.S., handed that responsibility to a private, independent, not-for-profit standards board in 1973. That&aposs when the Financial Accounting Standards Board was established. 

The establishment of the FASB was based on recognition of a need to further standardize accounting practices and reporting by companies. The FASB&aposs main task from its founding was to establish and keep updating Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) standards for U.S. firms.

Use of the principles isn&apost required for all businesses, but the SEC does require publicly traded and regulated companies to follow them in their financial reporting. This means companies that issue stock are held to the standardized rules by the Securities and Exchange Act, which also requires yearly external audits by independent accountants. However, companies that don&apost have external investors aren&apost required to follow GAAP.

Meanwhile, government entities have a slightly different set of standards to follow. Those standards are managed by the Government Accounting Standards Board (GASB).

Other countries have GAAP-like rules, established by their own version of the FASB.

Large accounting firms expanded services beyond auditing to different types of consulting in the late 20thꃎntury. But they also became involved in corporate scandals as their responsibilities beyond auditing other companies&apos accounts grew. 

Accounting Today:

Since establishment of the SEC, the pressure to hire good accountants has intensified. The financial cost to companies for falsifying records or having inadequate accounting is high, and continues to grow. Companies that try to manipulate or omit financial information to appear financially stable, like Enron in 2001, eventually face legal consequences and risk insolvency.

It was discovered in 2001 that Enron had been using accounting "tricks" to hide bad debt to the tune of billions of dollars, while also artificially inflating the company&aposs reported earnings.

An SEC investigation concluded Jeffrey Skilling, the company&aposs Chief Executive Officer, and former CEO Kenneth Lay, had managed to keep billions of dollars of debt off the company&aposs reported balance sheet. And the pair were accused of pressuring the company&aposs outside auditors, Arthur Andersen, to ignore it and certify the reports.

Besides Skilling and Lay being convicted, Enron went bankrupt and Arthur Andersen, the once-prestigious auditing firm, was dissolved.

In 2008, the once-prestigious global financial services firm Lehman Brothers - one of the largest investment banks in the U.S. - was discovered to have hidden more than $50 billion in loans as sales. The SEC determined the firm had sold toxic assets to banks in the Cayman Islands, with the understanding Lehman Brothers would buy back the assets in a short time. From an accounting standpoint, it appeared the bank had $50 billion more in cash and $50 billion less in "toxic assets."

Lehman Brothers collapsed as a firm, and some cite its collapse as precipitating the 2008-09 recession.


Years: c. 10 BCE - c. 100 Subject: History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Publisher: HistoryWorld Online Publication Date: 2012
Current online version: 2012 eISBN: 9780191735448

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Watch the video: Augustus: Romes Greatest Emperor (January 2022).