Information

Glacier III AR-183 - History


Glacier III

(AR-183 dp. 7,450, 1. 338'6", b.50'; dr. 21'1"; s. 11.5 k.;
cpl. 85; a. 1 3". )

The third Glacier ( AK-183) was launched 22 April 1944 under a Maritime Commission contract by Walter Butler Shipbuilding. Inc., Superior, Wis.; sponsored by Miss Agnes Kennedy; acquired 29 March 1945 and commissioned 14 April 1945, Lt. C L Hitchcock, USNR, in command

Following shakedown off Galveston, Tex., Glacier loaded lumber and metal drums at New Orleans and sailed 18 May 1945 for Pearl Harbor, where she put in 12 June to off-load her cargo. Underway 29 June with building supplies Lor Kwajalein, she returned via Eniwetok to San Francisco 5 August. Subsequently, a 5-month voyage out of San Francisco brought general cargo to Pearl Harbor. Tarawa, Majuro, Eniwetok, Guam, and Saipan before Glacier moored at Norfolk 1 February 1946, her missions accomplished. Decommissioned there 19 February 1946, she was returned to the Maritime Commission 3 days later and stricken from the Navy List 12 March 1946.


Glacier III AR-183 - History

Following are a list of the surviving P-38s. Clicking on each picture will open a separate window if a larger picture is available. When you are finished looking at the picture, just close the window. This page will remain open. (Make sure your browser is not set to block pop-up windows or the enlarged photo window won't open. Your browser should also be at it's default setting of 100% to view properly.)

This list is compiled to the best of our ability. If you have updated info on these or any other P󈛊s we'd appreciate hearing it!

Lockheed kept the model numbers in order before they modified special cases or photo-recons. Thus, the F𔂯Gs were originally P󈛊L models before they were modified. So, in the table below, they could have been modified for specialized use.

As of March, 2018, there are currently nine P-38s that are not only airworthy but are participating in air shows around the world. They are:


White 33 Airborn again!

Recovered from PNG (Papua New Guinea)

(10-17-2016)
Airworthy thanks to Westpac Restorations in Colorado.

Also known as:
Flying Bulls

Fully restored to airworthiness at Ezell Aviation in Breckenridge Texas in June 2008.

Crash landing in Greenwood, MS, June 25, 2001, it was restored to airworthiness and bought by the Red Bull company (the Flying Bulls).

Ezell used to have a great history of this restoration, but they have removed all the photos.

Purchased by The Collings Foundation in Aug 2015.

Restored and participating in air shows.

Acquired from Army Air Forces Museum.

Has been moved to the NASM's new building at Dulles International Airport. Now on display.

Formerly Country Boy II, City Slicker

Former Honduran AF
(Painted as P󈛊J when purchased by AF Museum in 1961.)

Currently also being displayed with "Marge" nose art.

Bubble nose modification shown in B&W photo at left was made post-war by Spartan Air Services, Ltd. for aerial mapping duty (©Cartwright Aerial Services) .

Damaged during Hurricane Andrew 1992. Stored pending restoration.


Although there is no name on the plane, it has this great noseart!

Originally built as a P󈛊L, it was converted to F𔂯G before entering service.

44-27183
NC62441
N62441
N501MH
N517PA
N718

The Yanks Museum has a nice slideshow of their P󈛊 here. (Just click on the image and it will begin.)

Served with the 54th FS, 343rd FG. Recovered from Aleutians. Restored
___

29 July 2017
We just received word that the Airmen from the Aircraft Structural Maintenance unit assigned to the 3rd Maintenance Squadron at Elmendorf are restoring this!

44-27053
NX65485
NX345
N345
N345DN
N577JB


Pudgy being installed at McGuire AFB front gate (1981)


Pudgy being removed to relocate
to hangar on base (2015

44-53015
Also listed as 44�
N9957F

Read about P󈛊 ace, Thomas McGuire here.

42-67638
Displayed as 267638/85

Crash landed on Buldir Island, AK, in 1944. Used as air-to-ground target practice for other P󈛊s. Recovered in 1994 by Air Force Heritage Foundation and delivered to Hill AFB Museum for restoration.

Fully restored and now back online. Test flown by Steve Hinton in early June, 2008.

Dec 09: New nose art: "Thoughts of Midnite."


With Jeff Harris'
"Honey Bunny" noseart

There is a wonderful slideshow on the Allied Fighters website. Check it out!

44-26981
NX53752 (1946)
NL53752 (1948)
CF-GCH (1951)
N5596V (1956)
N7723C (2005)

This P󈛊 was known just as the "Allied Fighters" P󈛊 until Jeff Harris, its then present‑day pilot, asked to put the "Honey Bunny" noseart on it.

It remained there until Jeff's untimely death in 2013, and has since been removed.

The last we heard, this P󈛊 as up for sale. Anyone have a few million to spare? Wish we did!

Here is a great tribute video to Jeff Harris. It's candid and it's very "Jeff."

Photo by Jim Lux
Pilot: Col. Sandy Sansing

Damaged at Breckenridge Air Show 1994

This website has a great interactive page (see left image). You roll over the P-38 and it will tell you what that part of the plane is! Try it here!

44-53286
42-103993
(Original "Marge")

Restored by Minnesota National Guard.

The photo on the nose is his wife, Marge (nee) Vattendahl.

Present-day P-38 pilot
Kevin Eldridge with Scat III

Renamed "Ruff Stuff" (2012)
Renamed "Scat III" (2015)


Glacier Girl on the glacier circa 1942?

Perhaps. This is an aerial photo taken from a recon plane of one of the downed P󈛊s from the "Lost Squadron."

Rod Lewis, Lewis Air Legends
San Antonio, TX

Formerly housed at the Lost Squadron Museum in Middlesboro, KY, which closed after the sale of "Glacier Girl."

This twin-boom P󈛊 Lightning lay buried under arctic ice for 50 years, and eluded recovery attempted by more than a dozen expeditions. Finally pulled piece by piece from under 268 feet of ice on the 13th effort to retrieve her, she was appropriately christened "Glacier Girl."

See entire Glacier Girl story here.

Previous owner:
Bob Jarrett, Classic Jets Fighter Museum
Adelaide, South Australia

42‑-66841
Also reported as: 42‑ 66851

*Special thanks to Pat & Linda Carry for their excellent ongoing updates re these birds.

We are not affiliated with the USAF or Lockheed.
Our entire operation is supported entirely by people like you.

As our parents, grandparents and friends who were "hands on" with the P-38 Lightning are continuing to leave us, keeping this website available as a tribute to them is vital. This aircraft was an important part of their lives and their history, and to carry on this legacy, we need funding.

What would you pay for a good aviation DVD or book? If you enjoy this website, please consider a financial contribution of the same amount to help defray our increasing costs and ensure that this part of aviation history continues to be available to people all over the world.

We have a page to thank our website's financial contributors and will add your name when you make a contribution. No donation is too small, after all $1 from a million visitors will keep us going a very long time!

It's easy to help. just click on the button below.

The copyright to all graphics on this site are held by the original copyright owners.


Dolly Parton vs. Porter Wagoner

Dolly Parton and Porter Wagoner were one of country music’s most legendary pairings, but when Dolly wanted to leave the Porter Wagoner camp in 1974, things turned heated. Parton did the best she could to leave Porter’s side in an amicable way, even penning and performing her legendary song “I Will Always Love You” for her long-time singing partner. But Porter turned around and sued her for $3 million in a breach of contract suit in 1979.

However, the two made up eventually, and Porter performed with Dolly on her TV variety show in 1988. Dolly Parton was also by Porter Wagoner’s side when he passed away in 2007.


NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 - Our Changing Earth

NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Geography Chapter 3 - Our Changing Earth are provided here. Download the best answers for easy and quick preparations for the exams.

NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Our Changing Earth are provided here to help you in easy and active learning of the concepts. We have provided here the best and accurate answers to all the questions given in chapter 3 of the latest NCERT Book for Class 7 Geography. All the answers are provided here in a readable and downloadable format.

NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 - Our Changing Earth:

1. Answer the following questions.

(i) Why do the plates move?

The movement of molten magma inside the earth causes the plates to move.

(ii) What are exogenic and endogenic forces?

Exogenic forces: The forces that work on the surface of the earth are called as exogenic forces.

Endogenic forces: The forces that act in the interior of the earth are called as endogenic forces.

(iii) What is erosion?

The wearing away of the landscape by different agents like water, wind, ice, etc. is called erosion.

(iv) How are flood plains formed?

When a river overflows its banks, it results in the flooding of the nearby areas. When it floods, it deposits layers of fine soil and other material called sediments along its banks. This leads to the formation of a flat fertile plains named as floodplains.

(v) What are sand dunes?

In deserts, the fast moving winds lift and transport sand from one place to another. When the wind stops blowing, the sand falls and gets deposited in the low hill-like structures. These structures are known as sand dunes.

(vi) How are beaches formed?

The sea waves deposit sediments along the seashores. This leads to the formation of beaches.

(vii) What are the ox-bow lakes?

As the river enters the plain it twists and turns forming large bends known as meanders. Due to continuous erosion and deposition along the sides of the meander, the ends of the meander loop come closer and closer. Eventually, the meander loop cuts off from the river and forms a cut-off lake, known as the ox-bow lakes.

2. Tick the correct answer.

(i) Which is not an erosional feature of sea waves?

Answer: (b) Beach

(ii) The depositional feature of a glacier is:

Answer: (c) Moraine

(iii) Which is caused by the sudden movements of the earth?

Answer: (a) Volcano

(iv) Mushroom rocks are found in:

Answer: (a) Deserts

(v) Ox bow lakes are found in:

Answer: (b) River valleys

3. Match the following.

4. Give reasons.

(i) Some rocks have the shape of a mushroom.

Some rocks have a shape of a mushroom because, in desserts, wind erodes the lower section of rock more than the upper section. Due to this, the lower part of the rock becomes narrow and the upper part becomes wide, giving it the shape of a mushroom.

(ii) Flood plains are very fertile.

When river water overflows, it results in the flooding of the neighbouring areas. This deposits a layer of fine soil and other sediments on the river banks, which leads to the formation of fertile flood plains.

(iii) Sea caves are turned into stacks.

The sea waves strike at the rocks and form the cracks in the rocks. These cracks become bigger over time forming the hollow caves on the rocks. They are called sea caves. Further erosion by the waves breaks the roof, leaving only the walls. These wall like features are called stacks. Thus, through continuous erosion, sea caves are turned into stacks.

(iv) Buildings collapse due to earthquakes.

During an earthquake, vibrations are produced within the earth’s surface as a result of the movement of the Lithospheric plates. When these vibrations travel outwards from the epicentre as waves, this leads to a sudden movement of the Earth's surface which results in the collapse of buildings.

Download all the NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Geography Chapter 3 from the following link:


French Route

The French crusaders departed from Metz in June 1147, led by Louis, Thierry of Alsace, Renaut I of Bar, Amadeus III, Count of Savoy and his half-brother William V of Montferrat, William VII of Auvergne, and others, along with armies from Lorraine, Brittany, Burgundy, and Aquitaine. A force from Provence, led by Alphonse of Toulouse, chose to wait until August and cross by sea. At Worms, Louis joined with crusaders from Normandy and England.

They followed Conrad’s route fairly peacefully, although Louis came into conflict with King Geza of Hungary when Geza discovered Louis had allowed an attempted Hungarian usurper to join his army. Relations within Byzantine territory were grim, and the Lorrainers, who had marched ahead of the rest of the French, also came into conflict with the slower Germans whom they met on the way.

The French met the remnants of Conrad’s army at Lopadion, and Conrad joined Louis’s force. They followed Otto of Freising’s route, moving closer to the Mediterranean coast, and they arrived at Ephesus in December, where they learned that the Turks were preparing to attack them. Manuel had sent ambassadors complaining about the pillaging and plundering that Louis had done along the way, and there was no guarantee that the Byzantines would assist them against the Turks. Meanwhile, Conrad fell sick and returned to Constantinople, where Manuel attended to him personally, and Louis, paying no attention to the warnings of a Turkish attack, marched out from Ephesus with the French and German survivors. The Turks were indeed waiting to attack, but in a small battle outside Ephesus, the French and Germans were victorious.

They reached Laodicea on the Lycus early in January 1148, around the same time Otto of Freising’s army had been destroyed in the same area. After resuming the march, the vanguard under Amadeus of Savoy was separated from the rest of the army at Mount Cadmus, and Louis’s troops suffered heavy losses from the Turks. After being delayed for a month by storms, most of the promised ships from Provence did not arrive at all. Louis and his associates claimed the ships that did make it for themselves, while the rest of the army had to resume the long march to Antioch. The army was almost entirely destroyed, either by the Turks or by sickness.


Mk3 Cooper S Register

Probably the biggest single revision to the Mini range was the introduction of the Mk III bodyshell. Although the Mk III Mini had been introduced in the autumn of 1969, Mk III S production did not commence until March 1970 and the first cars were not dispatched until the beginning of May. This is allegedly down to legal wrangles because BMC and John Cooper had an agreement for Cooper S’s to be produced for five years from the middle of 1966 and Cooper refused to be bought off by BL when they were trying to dispose of all such agreements in 1969.

One thing that did carry on with the Mk III S was hydrolastic suspension. Standard fitment were ‘silver’ units which were, in effect, competition units. These are considerably stiffer than the standard ‘green’ units found on more mundane models and much reduce the seesaw effect felt under acceleration and braking. It is said that the Mk III S has the best ride and handling of any production Mini.
When the Mk III S did finally appear it was a virtually indistinguishable from a Mini 1000, the only external clues being the twin petrol tanks, wheels and boot badge – all easily missed by the untrained eye. Gone was the different grille, two tone paint and different badging. Internally the main clue was the 130mph speedometer. One thing that was unchanged was the level of performance, despite the lack of an EN40B crankshaft which was dropped on cost grounds, power output was still quoted at 76bhp. This made it an ideal Q car and Liverpool police confirmed their faith in the S by taking delivery of 27 Glacier White cars in early 1971.

Because of the short production run changes were relatively minor, the main one being the fitment of a locking steering column at the end of 1970 and some colour changes. When production ceased at the end of June 1971 only some 1572 Mk III Ss had rolled off the production line which makes it a limited edition by modern standards. That it sold as many cars as it did was a testament to the Cooper name as BL never advertised the car and even the sales brochure was only a retouched version of the Mk II S brochure.

Good original cars are getting harder to find but a surprising number of cars have been with one owner from new. Because of the external similarity between the Mini 1000 and S the Mk III is one of the easier models to recreate and with prices for good cars are still holding up well buyers should always beware. Thanks to co-operation with British Motor Industry Heritage Trust at Gaydon the register has identified virtually all Mk III S cars produced from their chassis numbers. The MCR would always recommend that you check out any car with the relevant registrar before you buy.


The History Page

Note these unit histories were prepared at various times. Most appear to be written during the war. No attempt was made to edit the histories for time consistency. If you can add information to the histories or help complete them please email Ralph Grambo

Major Commands
4th Transportation Command 125th Transportation Command
Transportation Battalions
11th Transportation 71st Transportation 159th Transportation Vung Tau/Delta Provisional
Transportation Companies
154th 561st 567th 551st 402nd 1099th
1097th 403rd 544th 1098th

A HISTORY OF THE 4TH TRANSPORTATION COMMAND

The 4th Transportation Command was activated in March 1942 at Fort Lawton, Washington. Initially located in the Port of Liverpool, the Command achieved outstanding results while supporting the North African Campaign and later the invasion of Sicily. Shortly after the Normandy landings, the Command was directed to organize and operate the Port of Cherbourgh..

At the end of World War II, the Command returned to the United States and was reactivated at Camp Kilmer, New Jersey, in December 1945.

In June 1945, a need developed to update the Army's water terminal methods and techniques and to work out these details, the Command was reactivated at Fort Eustis, Virginia. New concepts for logistical over the shore (LOTS) operations which utilized BARCS DUKS and, later, LARCs were born in the mid and late 50s and early 60s. The Command combined the LOTS concepts with improved conventional terminal Operations. Terminal units from The Command were called into overseas service in both the Dominican Republic Crisis and for duty in Vietnam.

Alerted for movement in May 1965, the organization arrived in Vietnam on 12 August 1965. Its first assigned mission was to operate water terminals at Saigon, Nha Be, Cat Lai, Cam Ranh Bay, Vung Tau, Qui Nhon, Nha Trang, Phan Rang and other locations as directed. The Command was further charged to furnish direct motor transport in support of port and beach clearance, to support tactical requirements and to establish an Air Cargo terminal in Saigon. Initially, the Command had approximately 7,500 troops under its direction to accomplish these missions. Most U.S. Army divisional size units, some smaller units (both U.S. and Allied) and an estimated 70 percent of all supplies for United States and Allied forces in Vietnam have been landed at ports operated by the Command.

With the establishment of the U.S. Army Support Commands at Cam Ranh Bay and Qui Nhon in early 1966, the water terminal operations were transferred to them. The Command' s mission was altered to that of operating the Saigon Port complex, a sub-port at Vung Tau and various ammunition distribution sites.

During the Command's first year in Vietnam, nearly 1.4 million tons of military cargo had been handled at the Saigon Port alone with an average of 100 ,ships each month.

Beginning 4 July 1966 the Command was assigned the further mission of handling U.S. Agency for International Development and Commercial Import Program cargo. Members of the Command are also serving as advisors to officials of the Republic of Vietnam who operate the commercial port of Saigon.

With the opening of Newport in August 1966, a recently constructed facility north of Saigon, some of the heavy burden has been taken off the port of Saigon. These newest docks in the Saigon area serve re-routed ships which formerly tied up much of Saigon Port's traffic, plus refining and expediting, handling of USAID/CIP cargo.

In July 1967 the U.S . Army Transportation Battalion Vung Tau/Delta (Provisional) was established to operate the U.S. Army Terminal Vung Tau/Delta and to command control the 5th Transportation Company (heavy boat), the 329th Transportation Company (heavy Boat) and the 1097th Transportation Company (Medium. Boat).

One of the Command's major achievements in 1966 followed the SS Baton Rouge Victory disaster in August. The Victims, of the underwater mine explosion which blew up the vessel, were brought to hospitals by boats assigned to this Command our tugs helped beach the stricken ship, thus keeping the vital ship channel in the Saigon River, open. Personnel and equipment of the Command managed to salvage a major portion of the cargo aboard the ship which was destined £or Saigon and transported it upriver on barges to its destination.

The 4th Transportation Command consists of three transportation terminal service battalions, the 11th Transportation Battalion and 71st Transportation Battalion, the U.S. Army Transportation Battalion Vung Tau/Delta (Provisional), and the 125th (Terminal A) Transportation Command.

A BRIEF HISTORY OF 125TH TRANSPORTATION COMMAND (TERMINAL A)

The 125th Transportation Command was activated at Ft. Eustis, Virginia, On 25 May 1966. The initial mission of the Command was training, organizing, staffing and equipping itself and subordinate organizations for deployment to an overseas area.

A concentrated training program was developed and initiated. The training program contained minimum mandatory subjects. Training began with a five-week period of basic training which ended with a seven day field training exercise at Ft. Story, Virginia. During the field exercise the units participated in two types of exercises. A period of two weeks advance training for the unit followed.

Concurrently, arrangements for individual training was completed. Selected officers were sent for on-the-job training and special area orientation at such installations as Savannah Outport, Georgia, Sunny Point Outport South Carolina, Military Ocean Terminal, Brooklyn, New York, Military Ocean Terminal, Bayonne, New Jersey, and Ft. Belvoir, Virginia. Enlisted personnel received training at the U.S. Army Transportation Center Leadership School, Ft. Eustis Virginia, First U..S. Army Chemical-Biological-Radiological (CRB) School, Ft. Meade, Marylandl and, the U.S. Army Transportation School, Ft. Eustis, Virginia, and other locations.

The 125th arrived in the the Republic of Vietnam on 4 October 1966 and was assigned to the 4th Transportation Command (Terminal C). The unit has a unique task, in that it assists the Director General of Ports, Republic of Vietnam in developing more efficient methods which are required to improve operations of the Saigon Port.

The period 1 January 1967 thru 31 March 1967 saw significant progress in the program to improve the management and operation of the Saigon Commercial Port. The period 4 October 1966 thru 31 December 1966 saw the initiation of the improvement program, and the acceptance of revised principles and techniques of port management by the various military, governmental and private commercial interests in the port. After 1 January 1967 with a reorganization of the Port Authority and appointment of new officials at the national and local level, the Port of Saigon experienced an accelerated pace in. the improvement of operations and port management. Plans and programs initiated in the previous quarter began to show results.

Concurrently, importers, bankers, the Chamber of Commerce, and the new Minister of Finance exhibited a positive interest in accelerating port clearance, and accepting the fact that the basic problem was an economic one rather than one that could be entirely corrected at the port. The Market congestion problem became generally accepted as a problem in both Vietnamese and U.S. economic circles.

A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE VUNG TAU/DELTA TRANSPORTATION BATTALION (PROVISIONAL)

The U.S. Army Transportation Battalion Vung Tau/Delta previsional was formed 30 July 1967.

The Battalion was given the mission of operating the U.S. Army Terminal Vung Tau/Delta and commanding the 5th Transportation Company (Heavy Boat), the 329th Transportation Company (Heavy Boat), the 1097th Transportation Company (Medium Boat), and the 626th, 630th, 633rd, and 634th Transportation Detachments. The nucleus of the present battalion headquarters came from the 511th Transportation Detachment (Tm JD), contract supervision, which was an eight man detachment for supervision of the Alaska Barge and Transport Company.

The battalion headquarters were fully Operational in all staff elements by 31 August 1967. Additional efforts have been made to manage port operations in such a way as to assist AB&T to become more efficient and thus reach the 6o,ooo S/T cargo handled per month programed for this port beginning 1 September heretofore, the programed tonnage for Vung Tau was only 45,000 s/t. The present capability of this port is limited only by the consignee's ability to receive cargo. We could easily move 90,000 s/T thru the port if consignees could return the truck fleet expeditiously.

There are two (2) deep draft berths at the Delong Pier. In addition there are five (5) anchorage berths in the stream, three (3) of which are used for all cargo, the best protected for troop ships, and the farthest out for ammo ships. A short pier is used primarily for barges. Additionally there are three (3) LST slips, one of which is used primarily for loading and discharge LCU's. Vung Tau/Delta has four principal consignees in the area: PA&E, 53rd General Support Depot, 2d Maintenance Battalion and the 148th Ordnance Battalion.

The two heavy boat companies are committed daily to Can Tho, Dong Tam, Vinh Long, Phu Quoc, Qui Nhon, Ham Tan, French Fort, and Baria. In addition to cargo missions, the heavy boats are used for troop moves and in support of tactical operations.

The medium boat company is based at Dong Tam and is in general support of the 9th Infantry Division and direct support of the 3d Battalion, 34th Artillery. This company works with the Mekong Delta Riverine Assault Force (MDRAF), a Navy flotilla serving as home base for the 2d Brigade, 9th Infantry which makes beach landings throughout the Delta.

Seven of the Mike 8's have special construction in the well decks for Battalion FDC, Battalion Command Post (Bn Cp), Battery FDC's, and a first aid station. The remaining boats in the company are utilized to tow artillery and mortar barges into firing positions, plus keep our own maintenance barge with the company while on missions.

A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE 11TH TRANSPORTATION BATTALION (TERMINAL)

The 11th Transportation Battalion was activated 1 October 1941, at Ft. Hamilton, New York, as the 369th Quartermaster Battalion (Port). The unit was redesignated the 369th Port Battalion, Transportation Corps, 31 July 1942. The battalion served in England, North Africa, Italy and France during World War II and was awarded campaign streamers £or Sicily (with arrowhead), Rome-Arno, Southern France and Rhineland. The unit was inactivated at Marseille France, 13 March 1946.

Redesignated the 11 th Transportation Port Battalion ion on 29 September 1948, it was reactivated 4 October 1948 at Ft.Eustis, Virginia. The Unit's current designation became effective 2 October 1954.

The Battalion arrived in the Republic 0f Vietnam 5 August 1965 from Ft. Eustis. Upon arrival it was deployed to Saigon Port, Vietnam to prepare for the massive logistical buildup. One of the original units of the 4th Transportation Command in Vietnam, in less than two months the battalion had assumed operational control of the Port from the U.S. Navy, disembarked and staged the 1st infantry Division into the country and was engaged in discharging unprecedented tonnage of supplies and equipment in support of Free World Forces.

When the operations of Saigon Port were taken over by the 4th Transportation Command, the 11th moved to Long Binh and assumed the primary mission of a truck battalion. During this period its personnel participated in operations Greenlight, Moonlight, Hardihood and Birmingham, providing general support for field operations.

On 12 May 1966 the truck companies were transferred to another unit and the 11th returned to Saigon and assumed the barge discharge operations, supporting the Saigon Port and the logistical over the shore (LOTS) operation at Vung Tau. During the unit's first year in Vietnam, it was credited with transporting over 1.6 million tons of cargo over the waterways, piers and highways.

The unit's present mission is to provide vessels and personnel to move cargo along the inland waterways to final discharge sites, as well as providing personnel and equipment for terminal service at various port locations within the Republic of Vietnam.

To carry out its mission, the battalion has three companies assigned and several detachment-sized units.

A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE 71ST TRANSPORTATION BATTALION (TERMINAL SERVICE)

The 71st Transportation Battalion was constituted as the 48th Quartermaster Regiment (Truck) 1 May 1936. The 71st was activated at Ft. Benning, Georgia, 10 February 1941 and redesignated as the 48th Quartermaster truck Regiment on 14 December 1942. In December 1943, the unit was split and again redesignated as the 71st Quartermaster Battalion, Mobile, and the 48th Quartermaster Group. on 15 April 1946, the 71st was inactivated in Japan.. The unit was once more activated on 1 August 1946, as the 71st Transportation Corps Truck Battalion. During World War II the unit served in the Southwest Pacific area with merit and valor.

On 28 June 1954, the unit was redesignated as the 71st Transportation Battalion (helicopter) and was activated at Marshall Field, Ft.Riley, Kansas, 19 July 1954. The primary mission of the 71st was to activate, supply and supervise the training of helicopter companies and to prepare them as combat-ready units for assignments overseas or with other units in the United States. This new battalion was the first of its kind to be activated by the Army. Dramatic results of this training can be seen by the results obtained from the 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile) end their employment in the Republic of Vietnam from 1965 to date.

On 20 March 1956, three H-12 helicopters of one of the companies assigned to the Battalion accomplished one of its most memorable feats when they endured sub-zero temperatures, plus ice and snow, to scale the tricky slopes and land atop Pikes Peak, Colorado, to set a new altitude record at 14,110 feet.

The 71st departed for the Republic of Korea on 2 October 1961, where it was assigned the mission of conducting training exercises with the Armed Forces of Korea and delivering critically needed supplies to Korean Communities stricken by floods and other disasters. The unit was again inactivated 24 September 1963.

Reactivated at Ft. Story, Virginia, 24 June 1965, the unit had the mission to support, plan and supervise training and major activities for subordinate units. In January 1966, the 71st was assigned as a major subordinate command under the U.S. Army Transportation Training Center, Ft. Eustis, Virginia. Alerted for overseas movement in August 1966, the main body of the Battalion arrived in the Republic of Vietnam in October 1966. Its present mission is to operate water terminal activities in the Newport-Thu Duc area.

The Newport facility, which opened in August 1966, is a new water terminal facility north of Saigon which has been constructed to take some of the heavy burden off the Port of Saigon. These newest docks in the Saigon area serve re-routed ships which formerly tied up much of Saigon Port's traffic. They also refine and expedite handling of USAID/CIP cargo. When completed, Newport will have four berths for deep draft (ocean going) vessels, four barge sites, two LST slips and one LCU slip. To carry out its mission, the battalion has five terminal service companies assigned the 154th, 368th, 561st, 567th and 551st.

The 154th Transportation Company has the mission of discharging cargo at the U.S. Army Terminal Newport.

The 561st Transportation Company has a double mission. First, of the two missions, to maintain the cargo and vehicle staging areas at U .S. Army Terminal Newport and secondly is the unloading of deep draftvessels at U.S. Arny Terninal Newport.

The 567th Transportation Company was the first unit attached to the 71st Transportation Battalion and has the mission of building the new compound which is now called "Camp Camelot" - Home of the 71st

B (Tml). December 1966, a detachment of the 567th moved to lhe Mekong Delta to support the 9th infantry Division Base Camp at Dong Tam. This detachment was the first American unit at Dong Tarn and had the supplies waiting for the 9th Inf Div waiting on the beach when they arrived. The 567th Trans Co also has a mission of unloading vessels at U.S. Army Terminal Newport.

The 551st Transportation Company has a mission of loading and unloading LSU's and Barges at U.S. Army Terminal Newport.

The 402 nd Transportation Company supplements terminal operations at Cogido. Unit headquarters is at Long Binh.

"River Rats" The 1099th Transportation Company (Medium Boat, LCM-8) is Headquartered at Camp Davies near Saigon The 1099th supports units in the Mekong Delta whenever called upon. Their missions range from assisting in recovering downed helicopters in the Dong Nai River, pushing cargo barges anywhere in the Saigon area and pushing gravel laden barges from French Fort to Tan An in support of base camp construction by the U.S. 9th Infantry Division.

1099TH TRANSPORTATION COMPANY (Medium Boat)--from Armin Schmalz

The 1099th Transportation Company (Medium Boat) was deployed to the Republic of Vietnam in 1965 to provide landing craft for the movement of personnel and cargo in support of Saigon Port and Vung Tau sub-port operations. The mission has expanded to include all types of cargo which is moved throughout III and IV military regions on the inland waterways.

At present the 1099th is one of 3 Landing Craft Medium or LCM-8 Boat companies in the Republic of Vietnam. The 1099th is prsently based at the Cat Lai Arry Terminal about 8 miles due east of Saigon. The boats of the "brown water navy" have been deployed as far south as the old French resort town of Cap. Ste. Jacques (Vung Tau), and as far west as the Cambodian border. Of course, trips to Saigon and the neighboring area are common. The boats generally transport two commodities: amnnmition and general cargo. The Cat Lai Terminal is the primary ammunition offloading point for most of southern and Delta area of Vietnam. Ocean going ships, unable to travel further upstream, discharge their cargo in mid-river to barges and the boats which transport the amunition up to the main depot at Long Binh.

The 1099th has served under three commanders in the past year. CPT William B. Harriman Jr. handled operations during the first part of 1970 and was relieved by CFT William J. Provinse on the 27th of Februsry. CPT Provinse in turn was relieved by lLT John F. Hoverson on the 5th of October.

The company has recently been involved in an important combat support operation in the U Minh Forest since the last part of November 1970. It is the 1099th River Rat job to provide POL and ammunition to the 1st Aviation Brigade's 164th Combat Air Group (CAG) supporting the 21st ARVN Division's search and clear operations. The 1099th "Mike" boats are fitted with 5000 gallon POL tanks or 10,000 gallon bladders in their well decks in order to bring JP4 from the mouth of the Song Ong Doc River up river to Thoi Binh for discharge. There is also a maintenance boat along with other boats which carry ammunition that are involved in this operation. They operate out of Ca Mau, the base of operations. The crews of these boats are faced with danger everyday. During trips up and down the river, they are constantly subject to river ambushes and operate continually under extremely adverse conditions.

All of this has helped to make the 1099th the inost decorated Transportation Boat Unit in Vietnam. They have been awarded mimerous Silver Stars, Bronze Stars for valor and Army Commendation Medals. As a unit the 1099th has been awarded the Valorous Unit Award, the Meritorious Unit Award and has been recommended for a Presidential Unit Citation.

1099th TRANSPORTATION COMPANY from Lee Manning

  • Constituted 7 August 1953 in the Regular Army as Company C, 159th Transportation Battalion
  • Activated 1 September 1953 at Fort Eustis, Virginia
  • Reorganized and redesignated 25 September 1959 as the 1099th Transportation Company
  • Inactivated 16 June 1979 at Fort Eustis, Virginia
  • Redesignated 16 May 1988 as the 1099th Transportation Detachment and activated at Fort Eustis, Virginia

CAMPAIGN PARTICIPATION CREDIT

Counteroffensive, Phase II Counteroffensive, Phase III

Tet Counteroffensive Counteroffensive, Phase IV

Counteroffensive, Phase V Counteroffensive, Phase VI

Tet 69/Counteroffensive Summer/Fall 1969

Winter/Spring 1970 Sanctuary Counteroffensive

Counteroffensive, Phase VII Consolidation I

Consolidation II Cease-Fire

Defense of Saudi Arabia Liberation and Defense of Kuwait

DECORATIONS

Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army), Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1965-66

Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army), Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1966-67

Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army), Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1968

Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army), Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1970-71

  • Constituted 7 August 1953 in the Regular Army as Company A, 159th Transportation Battalion
  • Activated 1 September 1953 at Fort Eustis, Virginia
  • Reorganized and redesignated 25 September 1959 as the 1097th Transportation Company

CAMPAIGN PARTICIPATION CREDIT

Counteroffensive, Phase II Counteroffensive, Phase III

Tet Counteroffensive Counteroffensive, Phase IV

Counteroffensive, Phase V Counteroffensive, Phase VI

Tet 69/Counteroffensive Summer/Fall 1969

DECORATIONS

Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army), Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1965-66

Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army), Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1966-67

Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army), Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1967

Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm, Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1966-68

Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm, Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1969

Republic of Vietnam Civil Action honor Medal, First Class, Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1966-69

HISTORY OF l59TH TRANSPORTATION BATTALION (TERMINAL) On 1 September 1953, the 159th Transportation Battalion (Boat), was activated and given the mission of furnishing and operating landing craft for logistical and combat support of Army forces in joint amphibious operations as well as providing tactical mobility, combat and logistical support in ship to shore missions. During World War II four engineer Special Brigades were tasked with a similar mission. From these deactivated units the 159th inherited the tradition of wearing "red patches". The patches were originally authorized as a means of identifying boat personnel who were given general freedom of hostile beaches to continue their assigned missions.

In 1954, green combat leader's identification tabs were authorized, designating the 159th Transportation Battalion (Boat) as a combat battalion: the only unit so designated in the Transportation Corps. "Hit the Beach" became the unit's official motto.

From the date of its inception until the spring of 1965, the battalion was stationed at Fort Eustis, Virginia, where it provided support for the training missions of the U.S. Transportation School. On 4 May 1965, it was deployed to the Dominican Republic as part of Power Pak III. Supervising the off-loading of cargo ships and LSTs at Puerto De Andres and Puerto De Hainia became the battalion's mission for the next three-and-a-half months. When it returned to Fort Eustis on 17 August 1965, the l59th assumed responsibility for operation of 3rd Port Complex and on 21 December was redesignated as a terminal battalion.

The following spring the 159th Transportation Battalion (Terminall) was alerted for deployment to the Republic of Vietnam. The main body of the unit arrived in Qui Nhon on 10 August 1966. Ten of the units assigned to the 394th Transportation Battalion were attached to the 159th as the newly arrived unit assumed the mission of operating the LST beach and outer harbor discharge at Qui Nhon. In February 1968 these units were returned to the 394th and the 159th was sent north to be assigned to the Da Nang Support Command (Provisional).

Its new mission was to operate a LOTS (Logistical over-The-Shore) opereration on a strip of beach fifteen miles south of the DMZ. It came to be known as "Wunder Beach." After seven months the battalion was forced to leave "Wunder Beach" because of the impending monsoon season. Headquarters and Headquarters Detachment was deployed south to Vung Tau, a peninsula thirty miles south-east of Saigon.

Since 1 September 1968 it has operated U.S. Army Terminal, Vung Tau. The battalion is assigned three boat companies, 5th Trans Co (Hcavy Boat, 1099th Trans Co (Medium Boat) and 124th Trans Co (Terminal Service). Under the control of the battalion's boat operations center these units haul military supplies throughout the waterways of the Delta.

  • Constituted 6 November 1943 in the Army of the United States as the 403d Quartermaster Truck Company.
  • Activated 29 November 1943 at Camp Gruber, Oklahoma
  • Inactivated 6 February 1946 at Camp Kilmer, New Jersey
  • Converted and redesignated 1 August 1946 as the 403d Transportation Corps Truck Company
  • Redesignated 23 February 1949 as the 403d Transportation Truck Company and allotted to the Organized Reserve Corps
  • Activated 1 April 1949 at Milwaukee, Wisconsin
  • Inactivated 15 April 1952 at Milwaukee, Wisconsin (Organized Reserve Corps redesignated 9 July 1952 as the Army Reserve)
  • Redesignated 23 March 1966 as the 403d Transportation Company concurrently withdrawn from the Army Reserve and allotted to the Regular Army
  • Activated 1 June 1966 at Fort Bragg, North Carolina

CAMPAIGN PARTICIPATION CREDIT

Rhineland & Central Europe

Counteroffensive, Phase II Counteroffensive, Phase III

Tet Counteroffensive Counteroffensive, Phase IV

Counteroffensive, Phase V Tet 69/Counteroffesive

Summer/Fall 1969 Winter/Spring 1970

Sanctuary Counteroffensive Counteroffensive, Phase VII

Consolidation I Consolidation II

DECORATIONS

Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army), Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1970 -1971

Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm, Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1971

Letter from Captain Robert W. Cowan to DA Chief of Military History, 20 March 1971

On 1 January 1970, the 403rd Transportation Company (TT) was located at Da Nang, Republic of Vietnam, under the command of Captain James B. Chaplin.

The mission of the 403rd Transportation Company (TT) at this time was to assist the 663rd Collection-Classification and Salvage Company to construct pallets and wooden crates for retrograde engines, components and major end assemblies.

On 21 February 1970, the 403rd's Unit Headquarters and the First Platoon departed from Da Nang and established its base of operations at Tan My Ramp, Republic of Vietnam. Under the command of the 863rd Transportation company (Provisional) the 403rd Transportation Company (TT) worked at the shallow draft port at Tan My Ramp. The unit strength at this time was 4 Officers and 178 enlisted men. The second platoon moved to Chu Lai, Republic of Vietnam. Both the second and third platoons were attached to other Units and removed from the 403rd's morning report.

The mission of the 403rd's Headquarters and first platoons at this time was to operate Tan My Ramp. Tan My Ramp operation consisted of off loading and back loading LST's and YFU's. The 403rd Transportation Company (TT) also had the responsibility to ship all incoming cargo out to consignees at Phu Bai and Quang Tri. Shortly after the 403rd arrived at Tan My the output of the Ramp increased to over 20,000 tons per month.

The 403rd Transportation Company (TT) also was assigned the mission of moving personnel to and from Tan My Island and Ramp. To help accomplish this mission the second platoon of the 544th Transportation Company (Medium Boat) was assigned to the 403rd.

On 24 April 1970, Captain Gerald A. Soltis assumed command. The Unit strength had changed to 5 Officers and 172 enlisted men. The mission of the 403rd Transportation Company (TT) remained identical to that stated earlier.

On 11 July 1970 Captain Bruce B. Cary assumed command. The Unit strength had increased to 5 Officers and 238 enlisted personnel. The mission had not changed, but operations had increased to 30,000 tons per month.

In December 1970 the 403rd Transportation Company (TT) was assigned the additional mission of operating Don Ha Ramp. The operation was small, but by the end of December Don Ha Ramp averaged over 10,000 tons of cargo.

The 403rd Transportation Company (TT) had proved beyond any shadow of doubt that they possessed a certain inherent flexibility which could meet any challenge that circumstances might dictate. The 403rd Transportation Company (TT) received great praise from the 26th General support Group Commander and the United States Army Support Command, Da Nang for its outstanding performance.

  • Constituted 23 February 1943 in the Army of the United States as Company G, 520th Quartermaster Truck Regiment
  • Activated 25 June 1943 at Camp Ellis, Illinois
  • Reorganized and redesignated 25 January 1944 as the 4007th Quartermaster Truck Company
  • Converted and redesignated 1 August 1946 as the 4007th Transportation Corps Truck Company
  • Redesignated 18 June 1947 as the 544th Transportation Truck Company
  • Allotted 15 November 1951 to the Regular Army
  • Reorganized and redesignated 8 June 1953 as the 544th Transportation Company
  • Inactivated 15 November 1964 in Germany
  • Activated 14 September 1965 at Fort Eustis, Virginia
  • Inactivated 20 March 1972 in Vietnam

CAMPAIGN PARTICIPATION CREDIT

Northern France Rhineland Ardennes-Alsace Central Europe

Counteroffensive Counteroffensive, Phase II

Counteroffensive, Phase III Tet Counteroffensive

Counteroffensive, Phase IV Counteroffensive, Phase V

Counteroffensive, Phase VI Tet 69/Counteroffensive

Summer/Fall 1969 Winter/Spring 1970

Sanctuary Counteroffensive Counteroffensive, Phase VII

Consolidation I Consolidation II

DECORATIONS

Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army), Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1967

  • Constituted 7 August 1953 in the Regular Army as Company B, 159th Transportation Battalion
  • Activated 1 September 1953 at Fort Eustis, Virginia
  • Reorganized and redesignated 25 September 1959 as the 1098th Transportation Company

CAMPAIGN PARTICIPATION CREDIT

Counteroffensive, Phase II Counteroffensive, Phase III

Tet Counteroffensive Counteroffensive, Phase IV

Counteroffensive, Phase V Counteroffensive, Phase VI

Tet 69/Counteroffensive Summer/Fall 1969

Winter/Spring 1970 Sanctuary Counteroffensive

Counteroffensive, Phase VII Consolidation I

Defense of Saudi Arabia Liberation and Defense of Kuwait

DECORATIONS

Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army), Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1967

Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm, Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1971


North America

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North America, third largest of the world’s continents, lying for the most part between the Arctic Circle and the Tropic of Cancer. It extends for more than 5,000 miles (8,000 km) to within 500 miles (800 km) of both the North Pole and the Equator and has an east-west extent of 5,000 miles. It covers an area of 9,355,000 square miles (24,230,000 square km).

North America occupies the northern portion of the landmass generally referred to as the New World, the Western Hemisphere, or simply the Americas. Mainland North America is shaped roughly like a triangle, with its base in the north and its apex in the south associated with the continent is Greenland, the largest island in the world, and such offshore groups as the Arctic Archipelago, the West Indies, Haida Gwaii (formerly the Queen Charlotte Islands), and the Aleutian Islands.

North America is bounded on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the east by the North Atlantic Ocean, on the south by the Caribbean Sea, and on the west by the North Pacific Ocean. To the northeast Greenland is separated from Iceland by the Denmark Strait, and to the northwest Alaska is separated from the Asian mainland by the much narrower Bering Strait. North America’s only land connection is to South America at the narrow Isthmus of Panama. Denali (Mount McKinley) in Alaska, rising 20,310 feet (6,190 metres) above sea level, is the continent’s highest point, and Death Valley in California, at 282 feet (86 metres) below sea level, is its lowest. North America’s coastline of some 37,000 miles (60,000 km)—the second longest of the continents after Asia—is notable for the great number of indentations, particularly in the northern half.

The name America is derived from that of the Italian merchant and navigator Amerigo Vespucci, one of the earliest European explorers to visit the New World. Although at first the term America was applied only to the southern half of the continent, the designation soon was applied to the entire landmass. Those portions that widened out north of the Isthmus of Panama became known as North America, and those that broadened to the south became known as South America. According to some authorities, North America begins not at the Isthmus of Panama but at the narrows of Tehuantepec, with the intervening region called Central America. Under such a definition, part of Mexico must be included in Central America, although that country lies mainly in North America proper. To overcome this anomaly, the whole of Mexico, together with Central and South American countries, also may be grouped under the name Latin America, with the United States and Canada being referred to as Anglo-America. This cultural division is a very real one, yet Mexico and Central America (including the Caribbean) are bound to the rest of North America by strong ties of physical geography. Greenland also is culturally divided from, but physically close to, North America. Some geographers characterize the area roughly from the southern border of the United States to the northern border of Colombia as Middle America, which differs from Central America because it includes Mexico. Some definitions of Middle America also include the West Indies.

North America contains some of the oldest rocks on Earth. Its geologic structure is built around a stable platform of Precambrian rock called the Canadian (Laurentian) Shield. To the southeast of the shield rose the ancient Appalachian Mountains and to the west rose the younger and considerably taller Cordilleras, which occupy nearly one-third of the continent’s land area. In between these two mountain belts are the generally flat regions of the Great Plains in the west and the Central Lowlands in the east.

The continent is richly endowed with natural resources, including great mineral wealth, vast forests, immense quantities of fresh water, and some of the world’s most fertile soils. These have allowed North America to become one of the most economically developed regions in the world, and its inhabitants enjoy a high standard of living. North America has the highest average income per person of any continent and an average food intake per person that is significantly greater than that of other continents. Although it is home to less than 10 percent of the world’s population, its per capita consumption of energy is almost four times as great as the world average.

North America’s first inhabitants are believed to have been ancient Asiatic peoples who migrated from Siberia to North America sometime during the last glacial advance, known as the Wisconsin Glacial Stage, the most recent major division of the Pleistocene Epoch (about 2.6 million to 11,700 years ago). The descendants of these peoples, the various Native American and Eskimo (Inuit) groups, largely have been supplanted by peoples from the Old World. People of European ancestry constitute the largest group, followed by those of African and of Asian ancestry in addition there is a large group of Latin Americans, who are of mixed European and Native American ancestry.


We invite you to take a journey through our website to explore and learn more about the history of Pompeys Pillar National Monument.

We are a 501 (c) (3) non-profit organization established in 1989 to support Pompeys Pillar National Monument, which contains the last remaining inscription of the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1803-1806. Our mission is to preserve and protect the Monument by educating visitors through interpretation, special projects, and by supporting the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in its management of the site. The effort of the Pompeys Pillar Historical Association was a driving force to get this site into the public lands domain, which resulted in the purchase of the historical land from the Foote family by the BLM in 1991. By working cooperatively with the BLM in the planning and administration of the site, the Pompeys Pillar Historical Association successfully accomplishes this mission.

We look forward to your visit!


Moraine

Encyclopedic entry. A moraine is material left behind by a moving glacier. This material is usually soil and rock.

Earth Science, Geography, Physical Geography

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A moraine is material left behind by a moving glacier. This material is usually soil and rock. Just as rivers carry along all sorts of debris and silt that eventually builds up to form deltas, glaciers transport all sorts of dirt and boulders that build up to form moraines.

To get a better idea of what moraines are, picture yourself with a toy bulldozer on a lawn that has a bunch of dry leaves all over it. When you run the bulldozer through the leaves, some of them get pushed aside, some of them get pushed forward, and some of them leave interesting patterns on the grass. Now think of these patterns and piles of pushed-away leaves—moraines—stretching for kilometers on the Earth.

Moraines only show up in places that have, or used to have, glaciers. Glaciers are extremely large, moving rivers of ice. Glaciers shape the landscape in a process called glaciation. Glaciation can affect the land, rocks, and water in an area for thousands of years. That is why moraines are often very old.

Moraines are divided into four main categories: lateral moraines, medial moraines, supraglacial moraines, and terminal moraines.

Lateral Moraine

A lateral moraine forms along the sides of a glacier. As the glacier scrapes along, it tears off rock and soil from both sides of its path. This material is deposited as lateral moraine at the top of the glacier’s edges. Lateral moraines are usually found in matching ridges on either side of the glacier. The glacier pushes material up the sides of the valley at about the same time, so lateral moraines usually have similar heights.

If a glacier melts, the lateral moraine will often remain as the high rims of a valley.

Medial Moraine

A medial moraine is found on top of and inside an existing glacier. Medial moraines are formed when two glaciers meet. Two lateral moraines from the different glaciers are pushed together. This material forms one line of rocks and dirt in the middle of the new, bigger glacier.

If a glacier melts, the medial moraine it leaves behind will be a long ridge of earth in the middle of a valley.

Supraglacial Moraine

A supraglacial moraine is material on the surface of a glacier. Lateral and medial moraines can be supraglacial moraines. Supraglacial moraines are made up of rocks and earth that have fallen on the glacier from the surrounding landscape. Dust and dirt left by wind and rain become part of supraglacial moraines. Sometimes the supraglacial moraine is so heavy, it blocks the view of the ice river underneath.

If a glacier melts, supraglacial moraine is evenly distributed across a valley.

Ground Moraine

Ground moraines often show up as rolling, strangely shaped land covered in grass or other vegetation. They don’t have the sharp ridges of other moraines. A ground moraine is made of sediment that slowly builds up directly underneath a glacier by tiny streams, or as the result of a glacier meeting hills and valleys in the natural landscape. When a glacier melts, the ground moraine underneath is exposed.

Ground moraines are the most common type of moraine and can be found on every continent.

Terminal Moraine

A terminal moraine is also sometimes called an end moraine. It forms at the very end of a glacier, telling scientists today important information about the glacier and how it moved. At a terminal moraine, all the debris that was scooped up and pushed to the front of the glacier is deposited as a large clump of rocks, soil, and sediment.

Scientists study terminal moraines to see where the glacier flowed and how quickly it moved. Different rocks and minerals are located in specific places in the glacier’s path. If a mineral that is unique to one part of a landscape is present in a terminal moraine, geologists know the glacier must have flowed through that area.

Photograph by Jacob J. Gayer

That's No Speed Bump
Kaskawulsh Glacier in Canada has a ridge of medial moraine that stretches one whole kilometer (0.6 miles) wide.


Watch the video: TIMELAPSE OF THE FUTURE: A Journey to the End of Time 4K (January 2022).