Battle of Novara, 6 June 1513

Battle of Novara, 6 June 1513

The battle of Novara (6 June 1513) was one of the last victories won by the famous Swiss infantry, and saw them overwhelm a French army that had temporarily occupied most of the Duchy of Milan.

The French had ruled Milan since 1499, when they had expelled Ludovico Sforza (Second Italian War). They had defeated him again in 1500 and held the duchy for the next decade. They also managed to repel Swiss attacks early in the War of the Holy League, but in 1512 the duchy fell to the Swiss, who installed Massimiliano Sforza as duke. Power was split between the Duke, the Swiss and representatives of the Emperor Maximilian I. Maximilian also had an Imperial army in northern Italy commanded by Ramon de Cardona, while the French were allied by the Swiss, whose commander Bartolomeo d'Alviano had just been released after being captured at the battle of Agnadello (14 May 1509).

In 1513 Louis XII made a concerted effort to recapture Milan. French forces occupied Genoa, while Alviano advanced west to Cremona. In April 1513 a fresh French army of around 12,000 men under Prince Louis de La Trémoille crossed the Alps and threatened Milan from the west. Sforza and the Swiss were clearly unpopular in the duchy, and large areas rose in support of the French. By the end of May the Swiss had been expelled from everywhere apart from Novara and Como.

On 3 June the French arrived outside Novara, where the Swiss had a sizable garrison. La Trémoille launched an attack on the city, but was repulsed. He then pulled back a short distance to Trecate, and prepared for a siege.

This gave the Swiss the time to rush 5,000 fresh troops to Novara. They were able to join up with the garrison. Their combined force slept for three hours on the night of 5-6 June, and then made a night march towards the French.

Once they were close to Trecate the Swiss formed into three columns arranged in echelon. They hit the French at dawn and caught them by surprise. The Swiss lacked cavalry or artillery but the speed and fury of their assault swept away the French. The Swiss penetrated the centre-left of the French line and broke into their camp. The French infantry was shattered, and was said to have suffered around 8,000 casualties.

The French cavalry did manage to escape, but La Trémoille's position in Lombardy was now untenable. While the Swiss went on to recapture Milan, the French retreated back across the Alps. Later in the year the Swiss followed and invaded Burgundy, where La Trémoille was forced to buy them off.

This was one of the last victories for the Swiss infantry columns. Two years later, at Marignano (13-14 September 1515), equally valiant Swiss columns were unable to break the French lines, giving Francis I his greatest victory in Italy.

Battle of Novara (Ariotta) – After action report

Yesterday at our local club’s game day, I was able to get out my Italian Wars troops for a refight of the 1513 Battle of Novara (Ariotta). John and Lou took the Swiss troops while Pete and Dave took the French.

The initial set up was broadly in line with the recent blog post on the Battle of Ariotta. I did make a few changes:

  • The Swiss Pike block C on their left flank I increased from 24 to 36 figures to give them a fighting chance.
  • I added two “small” artillery pieces to the forces on the Swiss left flank. These turned out to be reasonably ineffectual, so did not make much difference to the game.
  • The Swiss reserves were increased from one pike block of 36 figures to two pike blocks of 36 figures. These were never intended to be deployed as they arrived too late for the battle. However, the French player did not know this information, so it kept them honest as in the real battle there was always the threat that they could arrive.

Here are a few photos of the initial deployments:

Two units of Swiss “Enfant Perdue” in skirmish order emerge from the woods.

The Swiss “Enfant Perdue” in skirmish order emerged from the woods near the village of Ariotta to start the game. Their job was charge at the French cannons to try and capture them. In the actual battle this attack failed, but in our game, due to some fantastic command rolling on the dice (snake eyes), Lou manage to assault the guns on the first turn. The guns were initially disordered due to the Swiss surprise attack so this reduced the effectiveness of the fire. The three French guns quickly fell to the Swiss, who then decided that they didn’t want to man the captured guns, but instead decided to assault the Landsknecht arquebusiers coming up in support.

A view from the French side of the Enfant Perdue exiting the woods to start the battle. The marsh can be seen to the right.

The main French force was deployed the other side of the Marsh. This consisted on the French infantry and a mass of Gendarmes. They were facing Novara, expecting the Swiss attack to come from the front. The Swiss had other ideas.

The deployment of the French facing towards Novara, expecting the Swiss advance from the front. A closer view of the French. Note the disorder markers near the French to simulate the surprise of the Swiss attack. These would be removed at the end of the French first turn (although the elite Gendarmes could roll it off at the start of the turn). The French camp behind the Gendarmes

Here is a view of the entire table of the Battle of Novara (Ariotta).

A view of the whole table. Note the small unit of Stradiots covering the French flank. The Stradiots were on guard duty so they were not disordered to start the game. The French showing the commander labels.

The Swiss on the left flank were off the table to start the game. The picture below shows the Swiss pike block C, the two small canons and the Milanese knights. Also shown are the two reserve Swiss pike blocks which never actually deployed on table.

After the initial success of the Enfant Perdue, the two main Swiss Pike blocks emerged from the woods, one to the front of the Landsknechts and one to their flank. The unit on the flank then immediately moved to engage, while the one to the front decided to move towards the French infantry (as actually happened at the real battle).

The most bloody engagement of the game.

The French decided to completely ignore the plight of their German mercenaries and proceeded to send all of their cavalry and half of their infantry towards the Swiss left. The half of the French infantry that was meant to move towards the marsh and the Swiss right, failed several command rolls and refused to go the aid of the Germans.

Pete, who was commanding the Landsknechts was therefore left to fend for himself, which is exactly what occurred at the real battle. There was a bloody clash with the Swiss Pike block which had emerged on their flank. This clash went back and forward over about four or five turns with both sides suffering heavy casualties. Eventually the Landsknechts, with no support arriving were completely wiped out, again, as happened at the actual battle.

This defeat left the two massive Swiss pike blocks to march on the flank of the French main forces. Some great command rolling again by Lou enable them both to fly down the table.

The Swiss marching unopposed on the French flank. Lou celebrating the victory over the Landsknechts and Pete pondering what could have been if he had received support from the French.

The Swiss once they appeared on the French flank quickly routed the French infantry that was meant to go to the aid of the Germans, leaving them to march unopposed into the French camp.

On the French right the gendarmerie commanded by Dave had pinned down the small Swiss force and had quickly routed the Milanese knights and overrun the Swiss artillery. They then surrounded the lone Swiss pike block on that flank. John, who was commanding this small Swiss flank force was coming under great pressure.

The Swiss pike block set their pikes to receive the Gendarmes and prepared for a bad day.

The pike block quickly became surrounded by the Gendarmerie. but valiantly fought off several rounds of attack. A unit of Gendarmes and a unit of archers became shaken and retreated, it was 2 : 0 to the Swiss. A third wave of attacks came in with units attacking both the flank and the front. With all of the damaged that they had suffered, this was too much for the Swiss, who routed off the table.

But John and his small band of Swiss had done their job. They had drawn the attention of the entire French Gendarmerie away from the main Swiss assault on the other flank. This had enable the Swiss commanded by Lou to rout the Landsknechts and half of the French infantry and then march into the French camp.

As in the real Battle of Novara (Ariotta), the French cavalry then decided that enough was enough. With no desire to engage the two massive Swiss Pike blocks without infantry or artillery support, they decided to leave the table in good order in the direction of Milano, bragging about how they had routed a Swiss pike block.

The final view before the French Gendarmes decided to leave the field of battle.

Overall I was really pleased with how closely our game simulated the real Battle of Novara (Ariotta). This result was achieved without the players knowing much about the battle in advance of the game. There were a few minor differences:

  • The enfant perdue managed to over run the French guns in our game due to some incredible die rolling.
  • Robert III de la Marck, did not manage to take any gendarmes over to support the Landsknechts and rescue his son.
  • The small Swiss force on their left flank saw far more action in our game than in the real battle and they were destroyed in our game.

It would be interesting to see how the Battle of Novara (Ariotta) would play out if the French commander chose to ignore the small Swiss force on their right and send the majority of their infantry and cavalry in support of the Landsknechts. If the cavalry could fix the Swiss pike, their artillery and crossbows could rain down fire into the immobile pike blocks. But that is a game for another day.

Blunders on the Danube

Viewed as the last great victory of the Swiss pikemen, the Battle of Novara was a surprise dawn attack by the Swiss, who were supporting the return of Maximilian Sforza to power as Duke of Milan. Despite the French victory at the battle of Ravena the previous year, the French had lost control of the Duchy in 1512, and had only recently taken control of it once again. The French, under La Tremouille, were aware of the approach of a large Swiss relief force (the Citadel of Milan had only just been recaptured by the French a few weeks prior). They stood to arms in the event of a Swiss attack, but none materialized, and the Swiss were reported to still be some distance off, and doubtless tired from their long forced march form their cantons. The French bedded down in the village of Trecate for the night, figuring the weary Swiss would surely rest overnight before reorganizing for the attack.

This scenario has been adapted for use with my own Band of Brothers, 2nd edition rules from that of James Roach, James' version is for his own Piquet/FoB inspired rules, "Hell Broke Loose". If you've some how missed his posts about Novara, and the Italian Wars in general, do yourself a favor and check them out. His painting is awesome in both its quality and its volume!

Terrain notes: The buildings of Trecate are class III terrain. The Marsh is Class III terrain for movement, but offers no cover. The woods and French camp are class II terrain.

French Order of Battle:

Use the following Sequence Deck (modified from the "Great Italian Wars" Muster French):
Cavalry Move in Open 2, Cavalry Maneuver 1, Infantry Move in Open 2, Infantry Maneuver 1, Inf-Cav Move in III/IV 2, Engines of War Move 1, Engines of War Reload 1, Missile Reload 2, Elites Reload 1, Deployment 1, Heroic Moment 2, Melee Resolution 4, Leader Check 3, Milling Around 3, Courage 1, Command Indecision 2*


After the French army took the city of Milan , the Duke of Milan, Massimiliano Sforza , fled to Novara , the second largest city in the Duchy of Milan , about 40 kilometers west of the capital, under the cover of his 4,000 federal mercenaries (→ Reisläufer ) . There he was surrounded by a French army of about 10,000 men under the general Louis de La Trémoille . In view of the serious situation, the daily statute of the old Confederation sent another army of around 8,000 men across the Alps to rescue the duke. The city had almost fallen under heavy bombardment by French heavy artillery when the arrival of the first half of the relief army forced the French to retreat to Trecate, 4 kilometers away .

War of the Holy League, (1510 –1514)

Battle of Novara, (June 6, 1513). In the second decade of the Italian Wars (1494-1559), Swiss mercenaries fighting in service of the Holy League defeated a French army under Louis de la Trémoille, forcing France to abandon its effort to hold onto the Duchy of Milan. The Swiss nominally restored Duke Maximilian Sforza, but remained in effective occupation of the Duchy themselves, then milked it with oppressive taxation and the burden of upkeep of their 20,000-man army. French fortunes were reversed two years later when Francis I won a crushing victory over the Swiss at Marignano (1515), where the future reformer Huldrych Zwingli served as a chaplain in the Swiss ranks.

PRINCIPAL COMBATANTS: Holy League (Italian states, Swiss cantons, Spain, and England) vs. France

MAJOR ISSUES AND OBJECTIVES: With papal support, the Holy League sought to oust the French from Italy.

OUTCOME: The French were forced out of Italy, but the Holy League did not long survive the death of the pope who had created it, and the French, now allied with the Swiss, returned to Italy after the war.

APPROXIMATE MAXIMUM NUMBER OF MEN UNDER ARMS: At the most important battle, Novara, the French fielded 10,000 men vs. an Italian-Swiss force of 13,000.

CASUALTIES: At Novara, at least 5,000 French troops and French-employed German mercenaries were killed or wounded Holy League forces, 1,300 killed or wounded.

TREATIES: All the allies, unable to agree, made separate peace agreements with France.

When France threw its support behind Alfonso I (1486-1534) of Este against Pope Julius II (1443-1513), the pope organized a “Holy League” of Italian states, Swiss cantons, Spain, and England to field an army with the mission of pushing France out of Italy. In a vigorous campaign, the Holy League drove the French out of a number of Italian cities, including, most significantly, Milan, by the spring of 1512. Then, on June 6, 1513, a Swiss-Italian force engaged the French at Novara, 28 miles west of Milan. The French army, 10,000 men under Louis de La Trémoille (1460-1525), was surprised by an attack of the 13,000-man Swiss-Italian army, which included deadly pikemen. Although the attackers suffered heavy losses including 700 pikemen killed or wounded, they inflicted at least 5,000 casualties on the French-a stunning casualty rate of 50 percent-which caused the desertion of German mercenaries fighting in the French ranks (those who surrendered to the Swiss were summarily executed) and forced the French to withdraw from Italy entirely. Yet the French surrendered to the Swiss, and not the Holy League, which, in fact, did not prove durable.

With the death of Pope Julius II later in 1513, the league began to dissolve. The French and the Swiss would subsequently fight and then conclude an alliance that would give them control over much of Italy.

Julius II (c 1445-1513)

Pope from 1503. Born near Savona, he owed his early elevation to the cardinalate to his uncle, Sixtus IV. His own pontificate was dominated by war: he built up the papacy’s territorial power by crushing Cesare Borgia, removing the Baglioni from Perugia, and expelling Giovanni Bentivoglio from Bologna in 1506 Julius personally took charge of these campaigns. He also took on the might of the French Louis XII, as he could not defeat him decisively with arms, tried to undermine his power by invoking the mantra of conciliarism: however, his creation, the ‘schismatic’ council of Pisa, did not receive wide support. Julius’s response was to call his own Lateran Council, which continued under Leo X.

In his uncle’s pontificate, the della Rovere cardinal was employed as military commander and diplomat. On Sixtus’s death, rumours suggested he was instrumental in securing the election of Innocent VIII rumours also claimed that this had made della Rovere ‘more than pope’. Whatever his influence over Innocent, he had no such power in the next pontificate. Hostility between him and Rodrigo Borgia had flared up beside Innocent’s deathbed, but he could not stop Borgia’s election as Alexander VI his reaction was to go into exile from Rome. After Alexander’s death (and the brief pontificate of Pius III), he negotiated with the other cardinals so successfully that his election was a foregone conclusion even before the conclave began.

Further reading: Christine Shaw, Julius II, The Warrior Pope (Cambridge, England: Blackwell, 1993).

Events in History on June 6

Event of Interest

1822 Alexis St. Martin shot in the stomach and treated by physician William Beaumont on Mackinac Island. Leads Beaumont to conduct digestion experiments through hole in St. Martin's stomach.

    2nd US national black convention (Philadelphia) The barricades fall and the Paris student uprisings of 1832 end

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1844 Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) formed by George Williams in London

    Australia: Queensland is established as a separate colony from New South Wales (Queensland Day). Lincoln's cabinet declares Union government will pay for expenses once states have mobilized volunteers Battle of Memphis fought on the Mississippi River, Union forces defeat Confederate fleet leading to the city's surrender Skirmish at Harrisonburg, Virginia, sees the Confederates win a minor victory in the Battle of Good's Farm Battle of Milliken's Bend, Louisiana and Williamsport, Maryland Battle of Lake Chicot, Arkansas (Dutch Bayou) Netherlands joins the gold standard Cyclone in Arabian Sea (Bombay, India) drowns 100,000 (disputed event)

Eruption of Novarupta

1912 The eruption of Novarupta in Alaska begins, the largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century

    Rabbit Maranville, is thrown out trying to steal home 3 times 1st air flight out of sight of land (Scotland to Norway) Voters in East Cleveland approves women suffrage

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1916 The death of Yuan Shikai, ruler of much of China since 1912, causes the central government to virtually collapse in the face of warlords, including Sun Yat-sen

    Battle of Belleau Wood, 1st US victory of WW I Assent is given to an Act to amend the Canadian Currency Act, 1910

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1921 Southwark Bridge in London is opened to traffic by King George V and Queen Mary.

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1923 Gangster Albert Anastasia is convicted of illegal possession of a firearm and sentenced to two years in prison

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1925 Walter Chrysler founds automobile manufacturer Chrysler Corporation

    Egyptian government of Adly Pasha forms Belgian government of Henri Jaspar falls The Revenue Act of 1932 is enacted, creating the first gas tax in the United States, at a rate of 1 cent per US gallon (1/4 ¢/L) sold 1st drive-in theater opens (Camden New Jersey) US Employment Service created Securities & Exchange Commission established Aviation gasoline 1st produced commercially Paulsboro, New Jersey

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    NY supreme court justice J F Crater legally declared dead The ship MS St. Louis, carrying 907 Jewish refugees from Europe, begins sailing back to the continent after it was refused entry into America. Approximately a quarter of those on board would perish in the Holocaust. 1st US Navy vessel constructed as mine layer, USS Terror (CM-5) launched from the Philadelphia Navy Yard 1st nylon parachute jump (Hartford Ct-Adeline Gray) Japanese forces retreat, ending Battle of Midway


1944 Operation Overlord: As part of the D-Day landings, the 82nd Airborne Division arrives at the French town of Sainte-Mère-Église

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1944 Operation Overlord: D-Day begins as the 156,000-strong Allied Expeditionary Force lands in Normandy, France, during World War II

    German submarines U-955, U-970, U-629 and U-373 sink in Bay of Biscay Alaska Airlines commences operations "Free People" premieres in Amsterdam Henry Morgan is 1st to take off shirt on TV Treaty drawn up for establishment of International Patent Institute Orapin Chaiyakan becomes the first Thai woman to be elected to the Parliament of Thailand German DR & Poland sign treaty about Oder-Neisse border Turkey: The Adhan in Arabic is legalized. David Marshall, Singapore's first Chief Minister, resigns. Ozzie Virgil is 1st black to play as a Tiger

Event of Interest

1958 French Prime Minister Charles de Gaulle says Algeria will always be French

    Roy Orbison releases "Only the Lonely" South African police kill 11 Pondo's at Nqusa Hill Gasunie, Dutch gas and transportation company established Under a temporary order, the rocket launches at Cuxhaven, Germany, are terminated, though they never resume

Event of Interest

1966 Civil rights activist James Meredith wounded by white sniper in Mississippi

Six-Day War

1967 Israeli troops occupy Gaza during second day of the Six-Day War

Egyptian aircraft destroyed by an Israeli airstrike at the beginning of the Six-Day War on June 5, 1967

Event of Interest

1968 Senator Robert F. Kennedy dies from his wounds after he was shot the previous night

    Air West flight 706 collides with a US Marine Corps F-4B Phantom jet over Los Angeles killing all 49 aboard the DC-6 and the pilot of the F-4B Soyuz 11 takes 3 cosmonauts to Salyut 1 space station Explosion at world's largest coal mine kills 427 (Wankie, Rhodesia) Gold hits record $60 an ounce in London US bombs Haiphong, North-Vietnam 1000s killed 47th National Spelling Bee: Julie Ann Junkin wins spelling hydrophyte A new Instrument of Government is promulgated making Sweden a parliamentary monarchy British voters decide to remain in Common Market Provisional Revolutionary Government of South Vietnam established "The Omen" premieres in the UK "Washington Post" reports US has developed neutron bomb Joseph L Howze installed as bishop of Roman Catholic diocese (Miss) Supreme Court tosses out automatic death penalty laws Proposition 13 cuts California property taxes 57% 200th running of horse's Derby in England Royal Air Force receives 1st F-16 Willie Horton becomes 43rd player to hit 300 HRs in the majors

Event of Interest

1983 Li Xiannian becomes President of the People's Republic of China and Deng Xiaoping the supreme commander

    Nicaragua expels 3 US diplomats 1,200 die in Sikh "Golden Temple" uprising India Video game Tetris is first released in the Soviet Union by Alexey Pajitnov 58th National Spelling Bee: Balu Natarajan wins spelling milieu Body of Nazi concentration camp doctor Dr Josef Mengele located and exhumed Dutch 2nd Chamber accepts "status" of Aruba Soyuz T-13 carries 2 cosmonauts to Salyut 7 space station Kathy Ormsby, a 21-year-old member of NC State track team jumps off a bridge permanently paralyzing herself 3 giant turtles found in Bronx sewage plant George H. W. Bush makes campaign promise to support reparations for WW II to Japanese-American internees (promise broken, May 1989) 2nd International Rock Awards For 2nd time this season, Cecil Fielder belts 3 home runs in a game Albert Belle is shipped to minors for not running out a ground ball

Election of Interest

2018 Iraqi parliament orders manual recount of legislative elections in May after Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi claims evidence of irregularities

    French man announced to have won France's €1 million My Lottery for the second time in 2 years, with odds of 1 in 16 trillion At least 46 Ethiopian migrants drown after their boat capcizes of fthe coast of Yemen Special pedestrian lane introduced just for "phubbers" slow-walking smartphone users in Xi'an, China German serial killer nurse Niels Hoegel jailed for a second life sentence for the murder of 85 more people (previously convicted for six). Germany's worst post-war serial killer.

Event of Interest

2019 On 50th anniversary of the Stonewall riots, New York City’s police commissioner James O’Neill apologizes for his department's actions during the 1969 raid on the Stonewall Inn

Treason of Novara

The so-called Treason of Novara (Verrat von Novara) was an incident which took place in 1500 in the context of the involvement of the Old Swiss Confederacy in the Italian Wars.

It was an early instance of Swiss mercenaries finding themselves on both sides of a conflict: Louis XII of France had conquered the Duchy of Milan in 1499 with the help of Swiss mercenaries. In the spring of 1500, Ludovico Sforza in his turn hired Swiss mercenaries in his bid to re-conquer the duchy. The two hosts confronted one another at Novara. About 6,000 Swiss under the command of Sforza defended the city, while about 10,000 Swiss under the command of Louis laid siege to it. The Swiss diet called for negotiations between the two sides in an attempt to prevent the worst case of the Swiss on both sides being forced to slaughter one another, "brothers against brothers and fathers against sons". Louis agreed to a conditional surrender which would grant free passage to the Swiss abandoning the city, but only under the condition that Sforza would be surrendered. However, the Swiss on Sforza's side, under an oath of loyalty to their employer, decided to dress Sforza as a Swiss and smuggle him out of town.

On 10 April, the Swiss garrison was leaving Novara, passing a cordon formed by the Swiss on the French side. French officers were posted to oversee their exit. As the disguised Sforza passed the cordon, one mercenary Hans (or Rudi) Turman of Uri made signs giving away Sforza's identity. The duke was apprehended by the French and died eight years later, incarcerated in the castle of Loches.

The French rewarded Turmann for his treason with 200 gold crowns (corresponding to five years' salary of a mercenary). He escaped to France, but after three years (or, according to some sources, after one year) he returned home to Uri. He was immediately arrested for treason, and on the following day he was executed by decapitation.

What happend on 6. June in History

In our data base we found 332 events happened on 6. June:
&bull 1134: Norbert of Xanten Holy Roman priest, saint, and founder of the Premonstratensian order of Canons Regular (b. 1060) [category: Deaths]
&bull 1236: Wen Tianxiang, Chinese scholar and general (d. 1283) [category: Births]
&bull 1296: Władysław of Legnica (d. 1352) [category: Births]
&bull 1393: Emperor Go-En'yū of Japan (b. 1359) [category: Deaths]
&bull 1436: Regiomontanus, German mathematician, astronomer, and bishop (d. 1476) [category: Births]

&bull 1480: Vecchietta, Italian artist and architect (b. 1412) [category: Deaths]
&bull 1502: John III of Portugal (d. 1557) [category: Births]
&bull 1513: Italian Wars: Battle of Novara. Swiss troops defeat the French under Louis de la Tremoille, forcing the French to abandon Milan. Duke Massimiliano Sforza is restored. [category: Events]
&bull 1519: Andrea Cesalpino, Italian philosopher and botanist (d. 1603) [category: Births]
&bull 1523: Gustav Vasa is crowned king of Sweden. This is the Swedish national day. [category: Events]
&bull 1542: Richard Grenville, English soldier and explorer (d. 1591) [category: Births]
&bull 1548: João de Castro, Portuguese noble and explorer (b. 1500) [category: Deaths]
&bull 1563: Ikeda Nagamasa, Japanese samurai commander (b. 1519) [category: Deaths]
&bull 1576: Giovanni Diodati, Swiss clergyman (d. 1649) [category: Births]
&bull 1580: Godefroy Wendelin, Flemish astronomer (d. 1667) [category: Births]
&bull 1583: Nakagawa Kiyohide, Japanese warlord (b. 1556) [category: Deaths]
&bull 1586: Francis Drake's forces raid St. Augustine in Spanish Florida. [category: Events]
&bull 1599: Diego Velázquez, Spanish painter (d. 1660) [category: Births]
&bull 1606: Pierre Corneille, French dramatist (d. 1684) [category: Births]
&bull 1622: Claude-Jean Allouez, French missionary and explorer (d. 1689) [category: Births]

Top 25 Lottery Jackpots On This Day

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Watch the video: Battle of Novara 1513 War of the League of Cambrai (January 2022).