Chernyakhovskii, Ivan D.Chernyakhovskii was born in 1906 in Uman, a town directly south of Kiev in the Ukraine. The son of a railroad man, he worked on the railroads before enlisting in the Red Army in 1924. By 1928 he had joined the Communist Party, graduated from the Kiev Military Academy (an artillery school), and received a commission. Following several years serving as a junior commander and "political worker" with an artillery regiment, in 1931 he was assigned to the Military Academy of Motorisation and Mechanisation, remaining there for five years. He was appointed as a chief of staff of a tank battalion in 1936, being promoted to the post of regimental commander in 1940.
In that same year, Chernyakhovskii was appointed as deputy commander of the 28th Tank Division, a formation which he took control of with the rank of colonel in the summer of 1941. As part of the 12th Mechanised Corps, the 28th Tank Division was stationed in the Baltic Military District at the beginning of Operation Barbarossa. Equipped primarily with light tanks such as T-26 and BT-5 tanks, the 28th Tank Division performed as well as can be expected under Chernyakhovskii's command, even engaging the 1st Panzer Division in a five-hour battle. It was soon to suffer heavy casualties and lose nearly all of its armour, being relegated to the status of a rifle division later that summer. Chernyakhovskii continued to lead this division in defensive fighting south of Leningrad until the summer of 1942.
The summer of 1942 saw him take command the 18th Tank Corps and when failure to hold Voronezh resulted in Stalin dismissing the commander of the 60th Army, Chernyakhovskii took command. For the next two years Chernyakhovskii led the 60th Army in a series of successful battles, including taking the city of Kursk on 8 February 1942, the Battle of Kursk in July 1943, crossing of the Dnieper River in October 1943 (for which he was made a Hero of the Soviet Union) and the liberation of Kiev.
In June 1944 Chernyakhovskii was promoted to the rank of full General, and on the express recommendation of the Soviet Army's Chief of Staff, Marshal Vasilevsky given command of the 3rd Byelorussian Front at the age of only thirty-eight, the youngest Soviet general to attain such a posting. Under his leadership the 3rd Byelorussian Front proceeded to liberate Minsk, Vitebsk, Vilna, and Grodno. He took part in Operation Bagration, where after his Front had been reinforced by the 5th Guards Tank Army to attack towards Bogushevsk and along the Orsha-Minsk highway. He advanced into East Prussia in the autumn of 1944 against fierce resistance by Army Group Centre. His Front took part in the Soviet offensive from the Vistula to the Oder by supporting Rokossovsky's 2nd Byelorussian Front that was driving northwest and between them managed to cut off a large number of German troops defending Danzig (now Gdansk) and Königsberg (now Kaliningrad).
Before his troops had managed to capture the city however (9 April 1945), Chernyakhovskii was killed by enemy shellfire while inspecting a field observation post on 18 February 1945. By this time he had been awarded a second Hero of the Soviet Union decoration, and as a living memorial, the East Prussian town of Insterburg (now in Kaliningrad Oblast, part of the Russian Federation) was cleared of its residents and renamed Chernyakhovsk in his honour. He was buried in Vilnius, Lithuania but with the break up of the Soviet Union in 1991, his body was returned to Russia.
Addendum: The author would like to thank Mr Zvi Harry Glaser for the following information. At the time of General Chernyakhovsky's death, he was part of the 438th Infantry Regiment, 129th Orel Division and states that during the preparations to advance towards Melzak (or Mehlsack in German), General Chernyakhovsky was visiting the division to inspect the situation and oversee preparations, hoping to see the front for himself. The divisional commander, Colonel Andrei Ukrainsky suggested that he abstain from this as they were under sporadic fire from the Germans and just after leaving the area, General Chernyakhovsky's car was hit by a shell, killing him.
Ivan the Terrible
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Ivan the Terrible, Russian Ivan Grozny, byname of Ivan Vasilyevich, also called Ivan IV, (born August 25, 1530, Kolomenskoye, near Moscow [Russia]—died March 18, 1584, Moscow), grand prince of Moscow (1533–84) and the first to be proclaimed tsar of Russia (from 1547). His reign saw the completion of the construction of a centrally administered Russian state and the creation of an empire that included non-Slav states. Ivan engaged in prolonged and largely unsuccessful wars against Sweden and Poland, and, in seeking to impose military discipline and a centralized administration, he instituted a reign of terror against the hereditary nobility.
What was Ivan the Terrible’s childhood like?
Ivan’s father died when he was three, and his mother died—possibly by poison—before his eighth birthday. Ivan’s formative years would be spent as a pawn in the struggles between rival groups of aristocrats.
What was Ivan the Terrible’s family like?
Ivan had at least six wives—including five in a period of just nine years—and his marriages frequently ended in the poisoning or imprisonment of his spouse. He murdered his son Ivan in a fit of rage and savagely kicked Ivan's pregnant wife, causing her to miscarry. These actions virtually guaranteed the demise of the Rurik dynasty.
How did Ivan the Terrible change the world?
Ivan used terror to centralize the Russian state, and his disastrous involvement in the Livonian War nearly bankrupted his newly established empire. He also promoted the Orthodox Church and oriented Russian foreign policy toward Europe.
Where is Ivan the Terrible buried?
Ivan is interred in the royal crypt at the cathedral of St. Michael the Archangel within the Kremlin in Moscow.
Laws of conditioned reflex
By observing irregularities of secretions in normal unanesthetized animals, Pavlov was led to formulate the laws of the conditioned reflex, a subject that occupied his attention from about 1898 until 1930. He used the salivary secretion as a quantitative measure of the psychical, or subjective, activity of the animal, in order to emphasize the advantage of objective, physiological measures of mental phenomena and higher nervous activity. He sought analogies between the conditional (commonly though incorrectly translated as “conditioned”) reflex and the spinal reflex.
According to the English physiologist Sir Charles Sherrington, the spinal reflex is composed of integrated actions of the nervous system involving such complex components as the excitation and inhibition of many nerves, induction (i.e., the increase or decrease of inhibition brought on by previous excitation), and the irradiation of nerve impulses to many nerve centres. To these components, Pavlov added cortical and subcortical influences, the mosaic action of the brain, the effect of sleep on the spread of inhibition, and the origin of neurotic disturbances principally through a collision, or conflict, between cortical excitation and inhibition.
Beginning about 1930, Pavlov tried to apply his laws to the explanation of human psychoses. He assumed that the excessive inhibition characteristic of a psychotic person was a protective mechanism—shutting out the external world—in that it excluded injurious stimuli that had previously caused extreme excitation. In Russia this idea became the basis for treating psychiatric patients in quiet and nonstimulating external surroundings. During this period Pavlov announced the important principle of the language function in human beings as based on long chains of conditioned reflexes involving words. The function of language involves not only words, he held, but an elaboration of generalizations not possible in animals lower than humans.
Poland plans to demolish statue of Soviet general Chernyakhovsky
WARSAW, July 10. /TASS/. Authorities in the Polish town of Pieniezno have ruled to demolish the statue of Soviet General of the Army Ivan Chernyakhovsky, the youngest front commander of World War II, a Polish official told TASS on Friday.
"The authorities of Pieniezno have received permission to dismantle [the monument]," said Adam Siwek, the head of the National Council for the Protection of Struggle and Martyrdom Sites.
"The council supports the initiative of the Pieniezno authorities," he said. "This monument is dedicated to a person negatively assessed in our history."
General Chernyakhovsky who commanded the 3rd Belorussian Front was fatally wounded in February 1945 in the outskirts of the East Prussian town of Mehlsack (now Pieniezno). He was buried in Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania, and reburied in Moscow in 1992.
The 60th Army was first formed in October 1941, as a reserve formation of the Moscow Military District. It comprised the 334th, 336th, 348th, 358th, and 360th Rifle Divisions  and the 11th Cavalry Division.  All these divisions had been formed in the Volga Military District in the preceding months. The army was under the command of Lt. Gen. M.A. Purkayev. In December the rifle divisions were reassigned as follows: 334th, 358th and 360th to the 4th Shock Army, 336th to 5th Army, and 348th to 30th Army,  while the 11th Cavalry joined the 7th Cavalry Corps in January. Purkayev's headquarters group had already been used to create the command cadre for the new 3rd Shock Army, and 60th Army was disbanded on Dec. 25. 
In April and May 1942, STAVKA began forming a total of ten new combined-arms reserve armies in preparation for the expected German summer offensive. STAVKA expected this to be directed at Moscow, while the German plans were, in fact, for a drive to the southeast. On July 2, after disastrous losses further west, 3rd Reserve Army was released to take up positions north of Voronezh. The army was under command of Lt. Gen. M.A. Antoniuk.  As late as July 5, the Soviet command believed the new German offensive was a prelude to an advance on Moscow, but shortly thereafter they understood the true intent.  The 3rd Reserve Army was directed to deploy to Voronezh Front, in the immediate environs of that eponymous city, and was renamed 60th Army on July 10.  At that time its order of battle was as follows:
On July 25, Mjr. Gen. I.D. Chernyakhovsky was appointed to the command of the army, a command he would hold until mid-April 1944. 
During the summer and autumn the 60th Army was engaged in an active defense of Voronezh and its approaches. German 4th Panzer Army arrived at the outskirts of the city on July 7 and began fighting to clear it of its 40th Army defenders. Counterattacks by 60th Army tied down these German mobile forces, leading to street fighting similar to what was to be seen in Stalingrad a few months later. The panzers were relieved by the infantry of 6th Army, and fighting continued until July 24 when the final Soviet defenders were cleared from the west bank sector of the city. The army continued to probe the German front in the weeks following in an attempt to deflect enemy forces from the fighting in Stalingrad this cost significant losses in men and equipment and several of the divisions had to be taken out of the line for rebuilding. [ citation needed ]
In the wake of Operation Uranus and Operation Little Saturn, the remaining Soviet forces on the southern half of the front joined in the winter counteroffensive. On Jan. 24, 1943 forces of Voronezh and Bryansk Fronts, including 60th Army, began the Voronezh-Kastornoye offensive against German 2nd Army, which was by now in a deep salient. Flanking and frontal attacks soon drove the remnants of that army westward in disorder towards Kursk and Belgorod.  The former city became the new objective, and it fell to the 60th on Feb. 8. Gen. Kuznetsov of Front headquarters reported:
"The city of Kursk was taken by our forces at 1500 hours on 8 February 1943. The 60th Army. The forces of the army fought intensely for possession of Kursk. The enemy offered stubborn resistance with the remnants of 82nd Infantry Division, the 340th Infantry Division, and the 4th Panzer Division, which approached from the Orel region, while counterattacking our units from the vicinity of Kursk with a force of up to a regiment of infantry." 
Following this the army staged another offensive aimed at L'gov and Ryl'sk from Feb. 12 - 20, exploiting the gap that had opened between German 2nd and 2nd Panzer Armies. Chernyakhovsky's attempt to take L'gov off the march was frustrated on Feb. 20 he then set out to envelop the town and eventually succeeded.  On Mar. 19, 60th and 38th Armies formed the short-lived Kursk Front. Five days later this was renamed Oryol Front, and the 60th was reassigned to Gen. K.K. Rokossovsky's Central Front. As the Germans regained their balance and the offensives ground to a halt, 60th Army found itself in the deepest, westernmost sector of the Kursk Salient, where it would remain through the following months. 
On July 5, 1943, the order of battle of the army was as follows:
- 248th Rifle Brigade
- 58th Armored Train Battalion
- 1156th Cannon Regiment
- 1178th Antitank Regiment
- 128th, 138th and 497th Mortar Regiments
- 98th Guards Mortar Regiment
- 286th Separate Guards Mortar Battalion
- 221st Guards, 217th Antiaircraft Regiments
- 59th Engineer-Sapper Brigade
- 317th Separate Engineer Battalion 
The sector of the salient occupied by the 60th was considerably west of where German 9th Army attempted to penetrate Central Front's lines, and the army saw little combat during the German offensive. It also remained largely inactive when the Front went over to the counteroffensive towards Oryol. [ citation needed ] In August the army was reinforced by the 1st Guards Artillery Division. This unit would remain with 60th Army until after the transfer to 1st Ukrainian Front in October. 
Finally on Aug. 26 Central Front renewed its offensive against Army Group Center. 65th Army, along with the weakened 2nd Tank Army, struck 2nd Army's center at Sevsk, which was liberated on that first day. 48th Army flanked this drive on the right, while 60th operated on the left. The Germans counterattacked northwest of Sevsk on Aug. 29, halting the main drive, but the 60th was able to break through on its sector, which the Germans had weakened in favor of Sevsk. By the end of the day Cherniakhovsky's forces had liberated Glukhov, and he continued to exploit using forward detachments.  Rokossovsky changed his original plan and regrouped his 13th and 2nd Tank Armies to his left flank to exploit the gap. The Germans lost track of these mobile forces until Rokossovsky threw them against 2nd Army's flank and smashed it in.  60th Army liberated Konotop on Sept. 6, Bakhmach on the 9th, and Nezhin on the 15th. By Sept. 22, 13th, 60th and 61st Armies, with armored support, were closing on the Dniepr River north of Kiev. 
At this point Central Front had advanced 100-120km farther than Voronezh Front, and in spite of having very extended flanks, appeared to have a real chance to liberate the Ukrainian capital from the march. Rokossovsky wrote:
"I visited Cherniakhovsky after his troops had liberated Nezhin. The soldiers and officers were filled with unprecedented enthusiasm. They had forgotten their fatigue and were plunging forward. Everyone had the same dream -- to take part in the liberation of the Ukraine's capital. Of course, Cherniakhovsky also felt the same way. All his actions were filled with the desire to reach Kiev more quickly."
Political calculations deemed otherwise. Stalin was keen to have the Ukrainian capital liberated by Ukrainians Gen. N.F. Vatutin and his Military Council member N.S. Khrushchev of Voronezh Front (soon to be renamed 1st Ukrainian Front) fit the bill. The boundary lines between the two Fronts were altered and Central Front (soon to be Belorussian, then 1st Belorussian Front) was directed at Chernigov. 
By the end of September, the 60th had a bridgehead over the Dniepr north of Kiev with a depth of 12-15km and a width of 20km. Rokossovsky ordered an attack to the west and southwest, past Kiev. Instead, Cherniakhovsky pushed southwards along the river Kiev seemed to be "attracting the army commander just like a magnet." As this was the most heavily defended sector, the attack failed. On Oct. 5, in a major reshuffle of the Fronts, 60th Army was moved to the (soon to be) 1st Ukrainian Front, where it continued to serve until the last weeks of the war. 
Kiev was finally liberated on Nov. 6. Over the following weeks see-saw battles took place west of the city, but by Dec. 26 the army had joined a new offensive against 4th Panzer Army towards Zhitomir.  Between Jan. 27 and Feb. 11, 1944, the 13th and 60th Armies joined with the 1st and 6th Guards Cavalry Corps to drive through the overextended German flank on the southern fringe of the Pripiat Marshes, unhinging their defenses, liberating Rovno and Lutsk, and taking favorable positions to continue operations into Army Group South's rear. 
On March 5, Cherniakhovsky was promoted to the rank of Colonel General, and on Apr. 15 he took command of 3rd Belorussian Front, at the age of 38 the youngest man to reach that level of command. He remained in this command until he was mortally wounded in action in East Prussia on Feb. 18, 1945.  Col. Gen. P.A. Kurochkin took over command of the army and held it for the duration.  At about this time the 1827th SU Regiment (ISU-152s) was assigned as a support unit to the army, where it remained (redesignated as 368th Guards SU Reg't. in July) until April 1945. 
On the sector of 60th Army, directly east of Lvov, the Lvov-Sandomierz Offensive began on July 14, with it and 38th Army hitting the left flank of 1st Panzer Army. That army had two panzer divisions in reserve close to the front their counterattack the next day stopped the 38th and even won back some ground, but the 60th opened a breach in the line farther north. The next day, Marshal Konev ordered the 3rd Guards Tank Army into this gap. The Germans tried to pull their flanks back to a switch position called the Prinz Eugen line, but the Soviet forces continued to make penetrations. On the 18th their armored spearheads met on the Bug River 50km west of Lvov and the German XIII Army Corps (five German divisions and the SS Division Galicia) was encircled. By July 22 the gap in the German front was 50km wide and Soviet forward detachments were racing for the San and Vistula Rivers. On that same day XIII Corps attempted to break out, but of its 30,000 men only about 5,000 escaped.  During the following months the 60th Army took up positions on the southern flank in the Sandomierz bridgehead and rebuilt in anticipation of the coming winter offensive. [ citation needed ]
At the end of December 1944, the order of battle of 60th Army was as follows:
The 1st Ukrainian Front kicked off the Vistula-Oder Operation on Jan. 12, 1945, eight days earlier than originally planned, due to a request for assistance from the western Allies during the later stages of the Battle of the Bulge. 60th Army was tasked to provide protection on the south side of the main penetration force. By 1400 hours the two tank armies of the Front passed through the attacking infantry by the end of the day the German defenses had been breached on a 35km frontage to a depth of 20km. Twenty-four hours later the penetration was 60km wide and 40km deep, and by Jan. 18 the Front was five days ahead of schedule. 
On Jan. 27, 1945, as the 60th continued on its flanking mission, the 322nd Rifle Division liberated the survivors of the Auschwitz concentration camp. 
In the last weeks of the war, 60th Army was transferred to 4th Ukrainian Front, and ended the war near Prague.  On 30 July 1945 the army's headquarters became the staff of the Kuban Military District at Krasnodar. On 4 February 1946 the district became the Kuban Territorial Military District, and became part of the North Caucasus Military District. The Kuban Territorial Military District was disbanded on 6 May. 
The East Prussian Offensive
The main thrust of the offensive was to be conducted by the 3rd Belorussian Front under Ivan Chernyakhovsky. His forces were tasked with driving westward toward Königsberg, against the defensive positions of the 3rd Panzer Army and 4th Army, the northern armies of General Georg-Hans Reinhardt's Army Group Centre.
From the north, on Chernyakhovsky's right flank, General Hovhannes Bagramyan's 1st Baltic Front would attack the positions of the 3rd Panzer Army on the Neman, as well as crushing its small bridgehead at Memel. Chernyakhovsky's left flank would be supported by the 2nd Belorussian Front of Marshal Konstantin Rokossovsky, which was initially ordered to push north-west to the Vistula, through the lines of the 2nd Army, thereby sealing off the whole of East Prussia.
Opening of the offensive
The Soviet offensive began on January 13 with a heavy preparatory bombardment. At first, the Red Army made disappointing progress the 3rd Belorussian Front gained just 1.5 km on the first day. Over the next five days, the Soviets managed to advance only a further 20 km, at the cost of very high casualties. Eventually, after almost two weeks of severe fighting, the Red Army began making steady progress, although again, this came at the price of high losses the defenders having the advantage of substantial fortifications in the Insterburg Gap east of Königsberg, and around Heilsberg. Over the next few days, the 3rd Panzer was largely destroyed or withdrew into Königsberg, while General Friedrich Hossbach′s 4th Army began to find itself outflanked.
Against fierce resistance, Rokossovsky attacked across the Narew on January 14 on January 20, he received orders to swing the axis of his advance northward toward Elbing. This sudden change of direction caught Reinhardt and Hossbach by surprise on Rokossovsky's right flank, the 3rd Guards Cavalry Corps captured the major town of Allenstein on January 22, threatening the rear of Hossbach's formation. On January 24, Rokossovsky's leading tank units had reached the shore of the Vistula Lagoon, severing land communications with the rest of German armed forces for the entire 4th Army along with several divisions of the 2nd Army which were now trapped in a pocket centered on East Prussia. On the same day, Hossbach began to pull his units back from the fortified town of Lötzen—a center of the East Prussian defence system—and through a series of forced marches attempted to break out westward.
In the meantime, Chernyakhovsky had succeeded in rolling up the defences from the East, pushing the remnants of the 3rd Panzer Army into Königsberg and Samland. On January 28, Bagramyan's forces captured Memel the remnants of the three divisions defending the town were evacuated and redeployed in Samland to reinforce the defence there.
The Siege of Königsberg and the Heiligenbeil pocket
Soviet assault on Königsberg from 6–9 April 1941.
With the remnants of Army Group Centre effectively contained, Soviet forces could concentrate on reducing the German forces in Pomerania and eliminating any possible threat to the northern flank of their eventual advance on Berlin. Reinhardt and Hossbach—who had attempted to break out of East Prussia and save their troops. The defending forces, in the meantime, were besieged in three pockets by Chernyakhovsky's armies:
Ivan Lyudnikov was born on 8 October 1902, in Krivaya Kosa in the Don Host Oblast. In 1913, he began working alongside his father at Mine No. 2 in the Shcheglovskogo Coal Mine. He became a coal sorter, then a drainage pump worker in 1914. He became an apprentice turner at the mine workshop in 1915, and in 1916 became a turner.
On 25 October 1917, Lyudnikov became a volunteer in the Yuzovsky Red Guard Group. In April 1918, he became a machine gunner in the special machine gun detachment commanded by Abrosimov on the Southern Front and was wounded. In May, he became a Red Army man and a machine gunner in the detachment of S.A. Bondarenko. In December, he transferred to the 1st Cavalry Regiment of the 42nd Rifle Division, part of Semyon Budyonny's 1st Cavalry Army. Lyudnikov became a VKSLM (Russian Young Communist League) member in 1919, elected by personnel of the 1st Cavalry Regiment. He became a Red Navy man serving on the gunboat Znamya sotsializma, under the command of Sergey Kolbasev, part of the Azov Flotilla and based at the Mariupol Naval Base. He fought against the White Army led by Alexey Kaledin, Anton Denikin and Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel during the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War between 1918 and 1922.
After the war was over, he was educated at the following military educational institutions:
- 94 infantry commanding officer of the Ukrainian Military District (8 August 1922 – 1 January 1923)
- Odessa infantry division (1 January 1923 – 8 August 1925)
- Commander at the 13th Dagestan infantry division, course and battalion course commander at the Vladikavkaz infantry school (1925)
- Machine gun course at the Vystrel course (1930) (April 1935 – 8 September 1938)
Printed order 00128 of 29 August 1938 appointed him the special affairs officer of the Red Army 1st department. Beginning April 1939, he was leading two sections of the 13 branch department of the Red Army. Its main task was in preparing operations workers for army headquarters and commanding Zhitomir infantry school.
The initial period of the war Edit
By 22 June 1941, Colonel Lyudnikov was commanding 200th Rifle infantry division that was part of 31st Rifle Corps, in charge of military district and located south of the city of Sarny. Later, the 200th Rifle division was added to the 5th Army and took part in the First Battle of Kiev. Occupying the Korosten fortified area (in Russian) , they, along with other units, made numerous flank attacks on the 6th German Army aiming at Kiev. After being withdrawn from the river Dnieper, 200th division took part in defensive fighting for Chernihiv. On 12 September, the division and its staff was attacked from the air, as a result Lyudnikov was wounded seriously in the head and his feet were broken. He was treated at Kharkiv hospital and then at Kazan military hospital No. 361.
After his treatment was over, in November 1941, Lyudnikov received command of the 16th Separate Rifle Brigade, organized on the basis of Grozny and some other defence schools of the North Caucasian defence district. The brigade became part of the 56th Army of the North Caucasus Military District. In late November, the brigade took part in the recapture of Rostov-on-Don. From 26 March 1942, Lyudnikov was assigned command of several divisions: the 218th Rifle Division of the North Caucasus Military District, and the 404th Rifle Division, the 390th Armenian Rifle Division and the 63rd Mountain Rifle Division of the 44th Army. Due to changes in the situation at the front, he did not take command of these. On 29 May 1942, he took command of the 138 Rifle division, which he held for 9 months.
Battle of Stalingrad Edit
138th Rifle Division was fighting the enemy in Stalingrad in October–December 1942. For 100 days and nights the division conducted fighting at the Barrikady works in the area of the lower settlement. This territory of 700 m × 400 m (2,300 ft × 1,300 ft) was encircled on three sides, the fourth was Volga river. The remnants of the unit held on against ferocious German assaults. [ clarification needed ] On 25 January 1943, the Division's units were relieved when the German 6th Army was close to surrendering. For their part in the fighting for Stalingrad, the division was reorganized into the 70th Guards Rifle Division on 6 February 1943.
Battle of Kursk and Battle of the Dnieper Edit
On 1 June 1943, Lyudnikov was appointed commander of the 15th guard infantry division, carried out his orders on defence and then changed to counterattack. On 22 September, forward units approached Dnieper north of the city of Chernobyl and began forcing it without a pause. After seizing the bridge-head on the right bank they repulsed counterattacks and started battle for widening the bridge-head. Lyudnikov was taken note of for his successful management in forcing Dnieper, showing audacity and courage. He was afforded with the title of the Hero of the Soviet Union, presented with the order of Lenin and the Gold Star (No. 1892 of 16 October 1943).
Operation Bagration Edit
The Red Army performed attack Operation Bagration (named for the Russian commander in the Patriotic war of 1812). At the time, Lydnikov was in command of 39 Army at the 3rd Belorussian Front. Together with 43 Army of the 1st Baltic Front, Army general Beloborodov made an attack operation against German forces in June 1944. This operation is also known as Vitebsk–Orsha Offensive or Vitebsk Orsha pocket. This operation resulted in liberation of 447 settlements in 4 days, including Vitebsk and Orsha.
Baltic Offensive Edit
On the decision of General Headquarters, the authority of 39 Army was temporarily delegated to 1st Baltic front to take part in the Baltic Offensive. The army was given the combat mission of seizing the Daugavpils–Pabradė line and further developing an offensive on Kaunas and Šiauliai. Daugavpils was liberated on 27 July, and then Panevėžys and Šiauliai. Kaunas was liberated on 1 August and the army came to the Raseiniai–Suwałki line, positions suitable to defense north of Neman at the borders of East Prussia. Lyudnikov's forces received the tactical task of capturing the well-equipped town of Tauragė, which allowed them to block the enemy's main path from Tilsit across the Neman. Army troops seized Tauragė and on 9 October crossed the border of the German reich, entering Augstogallen. The army had advanced 150 km (93 mi) in 6 days of attacks.
East Prussian Offensive Edit
Ivan Chernyakhovsky, commander of the 3rd Belorussian Front, set the tactical task to 39 Army that put it into operation on the second day of attack in the direction of Kudirkos Naumiestis, Pilkallen, Hensnishkenen. The 39 army started their advance on 17 October, encountered opposition, and carried only 21 km (13 mi) in a week. The offensive was postponed (what is sometimes called the First East Prussian Offensive or the Gumbinnen Operation) until greater reserves could be gathered, and 39th army held their positions.
When the offensive was to resume on 13 January 1945, fog made fire observation of a planned artillery attack impossible. As the advance began to fade, Lyudnikov decided to carry all tanks and self-propelled guns south of Pilkallen, a direction considered secondary. The tanks were given the task of breaking through the defence line and carrying out the advance, while infantry had to apply all efforts to pressure the enemy and develop a victory. If the breakthrough was successful, then developing it to the north-west for Tilsit could surprise the whole Insterburg group of Germans. Sleet and snow prevented starting the attack in the morning the weather calmed by 16:00 hours, and the tanks made advance and by 22:00, gaining 12–16 km (7.5–9.9 mi). A breach was formed, and on 17 January 1945, the 5 Guard and 94th Infantry corps broke through the Gumbinnen defence line and entered cities of Pilkallen and Hensnishkenen.
The army forces seized Tilsit on 19 January, and 39 Army reached Dejma river. It took several days for the advanced divisions to cross the river by ferry. Army forces moved forward by 18 km (11 mi).
Lyudnikov received the task of creating the fortified defence line, made a roundabout way from the north, then from the west, and reached the Baltic sea, separating it from the German forces. Army forces seized the railway station Metgethen, cutting communication between Königsberg and Pillau.
On 16 April 1945, the Army forces seized the city of Fischhausen, and this ended the fighting in East Prussia. Lyudnikov was promoted to Lieutenant general.
Soviet–Japanese War Edit
From 12 May, the 39th Army began to transfer to the Far East in preparation for the Soviet invasion of Manchuria. The 39th Army fought in the invasion of Manchuria. At the end of the war the army reached the Liaodong Peninsula, where it would garrison until the withdrawal of Soviet troops from China. For his leadership, Lyudnikov received the Order of Suvorov 1st class. He was also awarded the Medal "For the Victory over Japan", given to Soviet military personnel who participated in the campaign.
- of Kiev Military District (10 March – 14 September 1941)
- 16th separate brigade of students (24 December 1941 – March 1942) (1st formation) (30 March – 18 April 1942) (29 May 1942 – 15 February 1943) (15 February – 1 June 1943) (1 June 1943 – 27 May 1944) (27 May 1944 – June 1947)
Lyudnikov was commandant of Port Arthur and commander of Soviet troops on the Liaodong Peninsula until 1947. On 29 November 1947, he became commander of the 10th Guards Army in the Leningrad Military District. On 20 April 1948, he became commander of the 13th Army in the Carpathian Military District. On 13 December 1949, Lyudnikov became deputy commander of the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany. In November 1951, he was sent to the Military Academy of the General Staff to take Higher Academic Courses, graduating a year later on 1 November 1952.
On 28 November, he became deputy commander of the Odessa Military District. Two years later, Lyudnikov transferred to command the Tauric Military District on 6 September 1954. On 10 June 1956, he became Warsaw Pact Supreme Command representative to the Ministry of National Defence of Bulgaria. Lyudnikov became commander of the Vystel Higher Officer Training Courses on 26 March 1959. On 28 November 1963, he became faculty head at the Military Academy of the General Staff. In late 1968, Lyudnikov retired. He died on 22 April 1976 in Moscow, and was buried at the Novodevichy Cemetery. 
The History of Endocrine Surgery
Richard B. Welbourn, a retired endocrine surgeon who has written two books on the subject, has compiled the definitive history of the new and advancing discipline of endocrine surgery. The book traces the history of endocrine surgery from its origins to the 1980s, detailing the stories behind the surgery of each gland. A valuable biographical index containing basic information as well as the ideas and achievements of great names in the field will prove an invaluable resource.
Topics include: Evolution of Endocrine Surgery The Pituitary The Thyroid Thyroid Cancer The Adrenal Glands The Parathyroid Glands The Endocrine Gut and Pancreas Islet Cell Transplantation Multiple Endocrine Adenopathy and Paraendocrine Syndromes Cancer of the Breast and Prostate Essential and Renal Hypertension Surgical Stress. The book also includes more than 80 photos and diagrams. A chronological table shows the main events described in the text in their temporal context via milestones in general medicine, surgery and science, and selected major events in political and social history.
(d. 1340), prince of Moscow and sole grand prince of Vladimir.
By collaborating with the Tatar overlords in Saray, Ivan I overcame his rivals in Tver and made Moscow the most important domain in northeast Russia. He was nicknamed "Moneybag" ("Kalita") to reflect his shrewd money handling practices.
Ivan Danilovich was the son of Daniel and grandson of Alexander Yaroslavich "Nevsky." In 1325, when he succeeded his brother Yury as prince of Moscow, he continued Moscow's fight with Tver for supremacy. Two years later the people of Tver, the town ruled by Grand Prince Alexander Mikhailovich, revolted against the Tatars. In 1328 Ivan visited Khan Uzbek, who gave him the patent for the grand princely throne and troops to punish the insurgents. After Ivan devastated Tver and forced Alexander to flee, the town and its prince never regained their position of power. Significantly, in his rivalry with Tver, Ivan won the support of the Metropolitan, who chose Moscow for his residence. In the 1330s, as Grand Prince Gedimin increasingly threatened Russia, Ivan also fought to suppress pro-Lithuanian factions in the northwestern towns. His greatest challenge was to subdue Novgorod, which used its association with Lithuania against him, and which challenged him when he levied Tatar tribute on it. By faithfully collecting the tribute, however, and by visiting the Golden Horde on nine occasions and winning the khan's trust, he persuaded the Tatars to stop raiding Russia. Moreover, by currying the khan's favour, Ivan was able to keep the title of grand prince and secure succession to it for his son Simeon. Ivan died on March 31, 1340.
See also: golden horde grand prince moscow
Birthdays in History
Birthdays 1 - 100 of 277
- Peter Duncan, Australian politician Glen Loates, Canadian artist and painter of wildlife and landscapes, born in Toronto, Ontario Slobodan Praljak, Bosnian Croat general & war criminal, born in Čapljina, Independent State of Croatia (d. 2017) Vesa-Matti Loiri, Finnish entertainer Richard R. Schrock, American chemist, Nobel laureate Barry Lopez, American author (Of Wolves & Men), born in Port Chester, New York Allen Appel, American novelist, born in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania Dick Marty, Swiss politician & prosecutor, born in Sorengo, Switzerland Raila Odinga, Kenyan politician, Prime Minister of Kenya (2008-2013), born in Maseno, Kenya Gunther von Hagens [Gunther Gerhard Liebchen], German anatomist who invented the plastination technique for preserving tissue specimens, born in Alt-Skalden, Nazi Germany Samdech Preah Sanghareach Bour Kry, Supreme Patriarch of the Cambodian Dhammayutt Order [Eileen] Joy[ce] Chant [Rutter], UK, sci-fi author (High Kings) Einar Hakonarson, Icelandic painter, born in Reykjavik, Iceland Vonetta McGee, American actress, born in San Francisco, California, (d. 2010) Vince Foster, American lawyer, born in Hope, Arkansas (d. 1993) William R. Higgins, USMC colonel, born in Danville, Kentucky (d. 1990) Princess Michael of Kent, British royal, born in Karlovy Vary, Czech Republic Vadim Abdrashitov, director (Fox Hunt, Parade of Planets) Andrew Stein, President of NYC council (D) Mike Harris, Canadian politician D. Todd Christofferson, American LDS apostle, born in American Fork, Utah John Garamendi, American politician, born in Camp Blanding Joint Training Center, Florida Barbara Kruger, American conceptual artist, born in Newark, New Jersey Mairead Corrigan-Maguire, North Irish peace activist (Nobel 1976) Harold Cardinal, Cree political leader (d. 2005) Nick Raynsford, British MP James Nicholson, British MEP Jim Nicholson, Irish politician Michael Dorris, American novelist & scholar, born in Louisville, Kentucky (d. 1997) Brenda Hale, Baroness Hale of Richmond, British judge, 1st woman to head UK Supreme Court, born in Leeds, England Sarah Weddington, American attorney, born in Abilene, Texas Ian Jack, Scottish journalist Mia [Maria] Farrow, LA, actress (Rosemary's Baby, Purple Rose of Cairo) John Hayes, secretary-general (British Law Society) David D Friedman, American economist, physicist, legal scholar, and libertarian theorist (The Machinery of Freedom), born in NYC, New York David Tremlett, English artist, born in Dartford, United Kingdom Hans Adam, prince of Liechtenstein K M Jenkins, British director of personnel (Royal Mail) William Hill Boner, (Rep-D-TN, 1979- ) Douglas Hofstadter, American academic and writer Frank Murray, police Officer Shivadhar Srinivasa Naipaul, Trinidad, novelist, essayist (Fireflies) Tara Browne, British socialite (d. 1966) Jim Chapman, American politician (Rep-D-TX, 1985-1997), born in Washington, District of Columbia Anselm Kiefer, German painter Dennis Rader, American serial killer who murdered ten people in Sedgwick County, Kansas, born in Pittsburg, Kansas Birgitta Sellén, Swedish politician Elizabeth Brumfiel [Elizabeth Stern], American feminist archaeologist, former president of the American Anthropological Association Timothy Mason, consultant (British Arts Council) Sammy "The Bull" Gravano, American mobster who testified against John Gotti, born in Brooklyn, New York Anatoly Timofeevich Fomenko, Russian mathematician, born in Stalino, USSR Mark J Green, American lawyer/author (Closed Enterprise System), born in Brooklyn, New York A. K. Faezul Huq, Bengali lawyer and politician (d. 2007) Michael Hayden, General USAF, Director of the Central Intelligence Agency Hiroh Kikai, Japanese photographer (Asakusa Portraits) , born in Daigo, Yamagata Prefecture, Japan (d. 2020) Tim Yeo, British MP/under-sect (State of Environment) Henry Bartholomay, American fighter pilot Robert T. Bakker, American paleontologist Hans Brunhart, Leader of Liechtenstein (1978-93), born in Balzers, Liechtenstein Count Björn Hamilton, Swedish politician, count and engineer, born in Gothenburg, Sweden
Mar 28 Rodrigo Duterte, Philippines politician, President of the Philippines (2016-), born in Maasin, Leyte, Philippines